Serpentarium Mundi by Alexei Alexeev The Ancient Ophidian Iconography Resource (Mundus Vetus, 3000 BC - 650 AD)
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Map 001. The main historico-geographical regions that provided most of the iconographic material catalogued in the compendium, and their chronological periodization.

Periodization and nomenclature conventions follow the general history compendia: The Cambridge Ancient History (Volumes I-XIV, 1970-2005), The Cambridge History of Africa (Volumes I-II, 1982, 1978), The Cambridge History of Judaism (Volumes I-IV, 1984-2006), The Cambridge History of Christianity (Volumes I-II, 2006, 2007), The Cambridge History of Iran (Volumes I-III, 1968-1985), The Cambridge History of Early Inner Asia (Volume I, 1994), The Cambridge History of India (Volume I, 1922, Supplementary Volume, 1953), The Cambridge History of Southeast Asia (Volume I, 1992), The Cambridge History of Ancient China (1999), and The Cambridge History of China (Volumes I-II, 1986, forthcoming).

GREECE
-------------------------
Minoan:
3650-1450 BC
Cycladic:
3200-2000 BC
Early Helladic:
3200-1600 BC
Mycenaean:
1600-1100 BC
Geometric:
1100-800 BC
Archaic:
800-480 BC
Classical:
480-323 BC
Hellenistic:
323-31 BC
Roman Occupation:
From 146 BC

ITALY
-------------------------
Villanovan:
1100-700 BC
Etruscan:
768-264 BC
-------------------------
Roman Kingdom:
753-509 BC
Roman Republic:
509-27 BC
Roman Empire:
27 BC - 285/330 AD
Western Empire:
285-476 AD
Eastern Empire:
330-1453 AD

EUROPE
-------------------------
Corded Ware:
3200-2300 BC
Bell-Beaker:
2800-1800 BC
Únětice:
2300-1600 BC
Tumulus:
1600-1250 BC
Urnfield:
1250-750 BC
Hallstatt:
750-500 BC
La Tène:
500-1 BC
Expanding Roman Occupation:
From 197 BC
EGYPT
-------------------------
Pre-Dynastic:
4400-3150 BC
Early Dynastic:
3150-2686 BC
Old Kingdom:
2686-2181 BC
First
Intermediate:

2181-2055 BC
Middle Kingdom:
2055-1650 BC
Second Intermediate:
1650-1550 BC
New Kingdom:
1550-1077 BC
Third Intermediate:
1077-664 BC
Saite:
664-525 BC
Persian
Occupation:

525-332 BC
Macedonian
Occupation & Ptolemaic:

332/305-30 BC
Roman
Occupation:

From 30 BC

LEVANT
-------------------------
Ebla:
3000-1600 BC
-------------------------
Bronze Age Canaan:
3300-1200 BC
Early Israelite:
1200-1050 BC
United Monarchy:
1050-930 BC
Israel, Judah:
930-720/586 BC
Assyrian & Babylonian
Occupation:

720/586-539 BC
Persian
Occupation:

539-332 BC
Macedonian
Occupation:

332-140 BC
Hasmonean:
140-63 BC
Roman Occupation:
From 63 BC
-------------------------
Nabatean:
400 BC - 106 AD
Roman Occupation:
From 106 AD

ANATOLIA
-------------------------
Hittite:
1600-1178 BC
Syro-Hittite:
1178-700 BC
Lydian:
1200-546 BC
Attalid Pergamon:
282-133 BC
Pontic:
281 BC - 62 AD
Expanding Roman Occupation:
From 129 BC
MESOPOTAMIA
-------------------------
Uruk:
4000-3100 BC
Jemdet Nasr:
3100-2900 BC
Sumerian
Early Dynastic:

2900-2350 BC
Akkadian:
2334-2154 BC
Gutian:
2154-2112 BC
Neo-Sumerian
Ur Dynasty III:

2112-2004 BC
-------------------------
Mari:
2900-1761 BC
Mitanni:
1500-1300 BC
-------------------------
Paleo-Babylonian:
1830-1531 BC
Kassite:
1531-1155 BC
Isin Dynasty II:
1155-1026 BC
Assyrian Occupation:
911-626 BC
Neo-Babylonian:
626-539 BC
Persian Occupation:
From 539 BC
-------------------------
Old Assyrian:
2025-1378 BC
Middle Assyrian:
1392-934 BC
Neo-Assyrian:
911-605 BC
Median & Persian Occupation:
From 605 BC

IRAN
-------------------------
Proto-Elamite:
3200-2700 BC
Old Elamite:
2700-1600 BC
Middle Elamite:
1600-1100 BC
Neo-Elamite:
1100-540 BC
Median:
678-550 BC
Achaemenid:
550-330 BC
Macedonian Occupation:
330-312 BC
Seleucid:
312-63 BC
Parthian:
247 BC - 224 AD
Sasanian:
224-651 AD
CAUCASUS
-------------------------
Maykop:
3700-3000 BC
Kura-Araxes:
3400-2000 BC
Trialeti:
2000-1500 BC
Koban:
1100-400 BC
Urartu:
860-590 BC
Armenia:
331 BC - 428 AD
Colchis:
550-164 BC
Iberia:
300 BC - 580 AD
Albania:
100 BC - 461 AD

GREAT STEPPE
-------------------------
Yama:
3500-2000 BC
Katakomb:
2800-2200 BC
Srub:
1800-1100 BC
Cimmerian:
1000-750 BC
Scythian:
750-600 BC
Sauromatian:
600-400 BC
Sarmatian:
400 BC - 100 AD
Alanian:
100-350 AD
Hunnic:
350-470 AD
Avar:
567-804 AD
-------------------------
Afanasievo:
3300-2500 BC
Andronovo:
2100-900 BC
Sintashta-Arkaim:
2100-1800 BC
Karasuk:
1500-800 BC
Tagar:
800-100 BC
Tashtyk:
100 BC - 400 AD
-------------------------
Xiongnu:
209-93 BC
Northern
& Southern
Xiongnu:

93 BC - 155/216 AD
CENTRAL ASIA
-------------------------
Bronze Age Bactria-Margiana:
2300-1700 BC
Yaz:
1500-1100 BC
Median & Persian Occupation:
600-330 BC
Macedonian
& Seleucid Occupation:

330-256 BC
Greco-Bactrian:
256-125 BC
Yuezhi-Kushan:
30-375 AD
Hephthalite:
408-670 AD

INDIA
-------------------------
Indus Valley:
3300-1300 BC
Vedic:
1500-500 BC
Mahajanapadas:
600-300 BC
Nanda:
345-322 BC
Maurya:
322-185 BC
Shunga:
185-75 BC
Kanva:
75-30 BC
-------------------------
Indo-Greek:
180 BC - 10 AD
Indo-Scythian:
200 BC - 400 AD
Mitra:
150-20 BC
Northern Kshatrapas:
60 BC - 150 AD
Indo-Parthian:
12 BC - 130 AD
Western Kshatrapas:
35-405 AD
Indo-Sasanian:
250-380 AD
-------------------------
Satavahana:
120 BC - 220 AD
Vakataka:
250-510 AD
Gupta:
319-605 AD
Chalukya:
543-753 AD
-------------------------
Pandyan:
600 BC - 1650 AD
Chola:
300 BC - 1279 AD
Chera:
300 BC - 1124 AD
Kalabhras:
250-600 AD
Pallava:
275-897 AD
Kadamba:
345-525 AD
CHINA
-------------------------
Xia:
2070-1600 BC
Shang:
1600-1046 BC
Western Zhou:
1046-771 BC
Spring & Autumn:
771-475 BC
Warring States:
475-221 BC
Qin:
221-206 BC
Western Han
206 BC - 9 AD
Xin:
9-23 AD
Eastern Han:
25-220 AD
Three Kingdoms:
220-265 AD
Jin:
265-317 AD
Northern
Dynasties:

386-581 AD
Southern
Dynasties:

317-589 AD
Six Dynasties:
222-589 AD
Sui:
589-618 AD
Tang:
618-907 AD

KOREA
-------------------------
Mumun:
1500-300 BC
Gojoseon:
750-108 BC
Jin:
350-150 BC
Goguryeo:
37 BC - 668 AD
Baekje:
18 BC - 660 AD
Silla:
57 BC - 935 AD
Gaya:
42-562 AD

INDOCHINA
-------------------------
Pyu City-States:
200 BC - 1050 AD
-------------------------
Funan:
68-550 AD
Chenla
550-802 AD
-------------------------
Early Hong Bang:
2879-1913 BC
Middle Hong Bang:
1912-1055 BC
Late Hong Bang:
1054-258 BC
Thuc Dynasty:
257-179 BC
Trieu Dynasty:
207-111 BC
First Chinese Domination:
111 BC - 40 AD
Trung Sisters:
40-43 AD
Second Chinese Domination:
43-544 AD
Early Ly Dynasty:
544-602 AD
Third Chinese Domination:
602-938 AD

Note(s): (1) No universally accepted comprehensive periodization scheme has yet been formulated for Afro-Eurasian civilization. The periodization of geographical and cultural areas follows their distinctive dating and nomenclature conventions. (2) The chronological framework is not comprehensive; only major historical periods, archaeological cultures, tribal unions, and centralized states are included. (3) Some historico-geographical regions separated into sub-divisions, based on distinctive cultural features, separate historical developments, or geographical locations. (4) Most of the dates in this general framework and in the artefact descriptions are approximate. (5) The map is designed by Alexei Alexeev.

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