Serpentarium Mundi by Alexei Alexeev The Ancient Ophidian Iconography Resource (Mundus Vetus, 3000 BC - 650 AD)
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  SCULPTURES & RELIEFS ADORNMENTS & TOOLS COINS VASES PAINTINGS & MOSAICS MANUSCRIPTS
Volume II VOLUME III: COINS Volume IV
           
Reptiles &
Amphibians


● Reptiles:
Crocodile
Lizard
Snake
Turtle
................................
● Amphibians:
Frog
Real
Animals


● Aquatic:
Dolphin
Octopus
................................
● Terrestrial:
Bull
Deer
Dog
Elephant
Goat
Horse
Lion
................................
● Aerial:
Eagle
Ibis
Owl
Rooster
Fantastic Creatures

● Herpetomorphs:
Achelous
Agathodaemon
Alectorocephalus
Cecrops
Cerberos, Orthros
Chimaera
Giant
Glycon
Gorgon, Erinys
Heru·pa·khered/
Harpocrates
Isis-Thermuthis
Ladon
Lernean Hydra
Ophiomorphic Enemy (Psalm 91)
Python
Serapis-Agathodaemon
Serpent
Tutu/Tithoes
................................
● Ichthyomorphs:
Aethiopian Ketos
Baal-Arwad
Capricorn
Hippocampos
Ichthyocentaur
Ketos, Sea-Monster
Kriocampos
Scylla
Taurocampos
Triton, Nereus
Trojan Ketos
................................
● Ornithomorphs:
Garuda
Gryphon
Sphinx
Deities &
Spirits


● Olympians:
Apollo
Artemis/Diana
Athena/Minerva
Demeter/Ceres
Dionysos/Bacchus
Hermes/Mercury
Poseidon/Neptune
Zeus/Jupiter
................................
● Major Deities:
Asclepios/
Aesculapius
Eirene/Pax
Felicitas
Fortuna
Hades/Pluto
Hecate
Helios/Sol
Hygieia/Valetudo
Juno Sospita
Nemesis
Nike/Victoria
Salus
Tyche Polias
................................
● Minor Deities:
Euthenia
Genius
Harmonia
Homonoia
Iris
Maia
Nymph
Telesphoros
................................
● Aquatic Deities:
Aisaros
Hypsas
Nilus
Thetis
Tiberinus
................................
● Personifications:
Aegyptos
Alexandria
................................
● Foreign Deities:
Apis
Bes
Eshmun
Hermanubis
Her·ur/Haroeris
Isis
Melqart
Mên
Serapis
Sobek/Suchos
Heroes &
Notables


● Monster-Slayers:
Bellerophon
Cadmos
Heracles/Hercules
Perseus
................................
● Mythological Figures:
Ajax the Lesser
Amphilochos
Castor & Pollux
Iamos
Iocastos
Opheltes-Archemoros
Philoctetes
Taras
Triptolemos
Zakynthos
................................
● Historical
Figures:
Antinous
Olympias
Themistocles
................................
● Anonymous Personages:
Emperor
Herald
Horseman
Pharaoh
Priestess
Reaper
Objects &
Symbols


● Fantastic Objects:
Aegis

⇩ Aegis (Deities):
Athena/Minerva
Zeus/Jupiter

⇩ Aegis (Kings):
Alexander III
Ptolemy I
Ptolemy III
Ptolemy IV
Ptolemy VIII
Menander I
Heliocles I
Antialcidas
Lysias
Strato I
Philoxenus
Amyntas
Diomedes
Heliocles II
Menander II
Archebius
Artemidoros

⇩ Aegis (Emperors):
Nero
Galba
Vespasian
Titus
Domitian
Nerva
Trajan
Hadrian
Antoninus Pius
Marcus Aurelius
Lucius Verus
Commodus
Septimius Severus
Caracalla
Macrinus
Elagabalus
Severus Alexander
Maximinus Thrax
Gordian III
Philip the Arab
Philip III
Valerian
Gallienus
Claudius Gothicus
Aurelian
Tacitus
Florianus
Probus
Carus
Carinus
Maximian
Galerius
Constantine I
Constantine II

Eye of Ra
Gorgoneion
Keraunos/Fulmen
Kerykeion/Caduceus
..................................
● Ritual Objects:
Altar
Cista Mystica
Crown, Headgear
Curule
Effigy
Fasces
Omphalos, Baetylus
Staff, Rod
Temple, Shrine
Thyrsos
Torch
Tripod
Vase
..................................
● Musical Instruments:
Aulos/Tibia
Carnyx
Lyre, Cithara
..................................
● Weapons, Military & Transport Devices:
Anchor
Aquila
Bow, Arrow, Quiver
Chariot
Club
Galley
Helmet
Labarum
Labrys
Trident
..................................
● Agricultural Tools & Symbols:
Cornucopia
Grain Ear
Kalathos
Tree, Plant
..................................
● Astronomical Symbols:
Star
           
Description. Volume III contains a selection of iconographical subjects represented on numismatic and exonumic objects: coins, contourniates, and medallions in a variety of materials (bronze, silver, electrum, gold, etc.).

This volume is divided into 6 specialized chapters, based on the type of iconographical subject and the context. Every chapter has a different number of articles (currently from 5 to 92). Each article has a different number of figures (currently from 1 to 90), which are divided into sets (5 x 6 content grids, accommodating up to 30 figures' thumbnails; currently from 1 to 3). The figures contain varying numbers of artefacts (1, 2, 3, or 6), depending on the scale of the source-image. Some artefacts are represented by several figures (offering a general view and details).

Currently, 43 articles in 6 chapters are available, and Volume III contains 799 figures.

----------------------------------- « ● Quotations from the Father of History about Coins ● » -----------------------------------


{...} the Lydians have nearly the same customs as the Hellenes. They were the first of all people we know of to use coinage struck from gold and silver, and the first to become retailers of goods they did not themselves produce.

● Herodotus (484-425 BC), Histories I: 94, 1 | Translated by Andrea L. Purvis & Robert B. Strassler. Copyright © 2007.

--------------------------------------------------------------------- « ● ● ● » ---------------------------------------------------------------------


Both [Delphian] oracles concurred in their reply; they predicted that if Croesus [Croesus of Lydia, r. 560-546 BC] were to wage war against the Persians, he would destroy a great empire, and they advised him to find the most powerful Hellenes and to make them his friends and supporters. When the oracular responses were brought back to Croesus, he was overjoyed with the prophecies, confidently expecting that they foretold that he was going to destroy the empire of Cyrus [Cyrus the Great, r. 549-530 BC]. Then, having sent yet another mission to Delphi, and after having ascertained the size of the population of Delphi, Croesus gave each man of that city a present of two gold staters. In return, the Delphians granted to Croesus and the Lydians the privileges of priority in oracular consultation and exemption from fees, along with front-row places in their festivals. They also granted in perpetuity that any of the Lydians could become a Delphian citizen.

● Herodotus (484-425 BC), Histories I: 53, 3; 54, 1-2 | Translated by Andrea L. Purvis & Robert B. Strassler. Copyright © 2007.

--------------------------------------------------------------------- « ● ● ● » ---------------------------------------------------------------------


After the Lacedaemonians had besieged Samos for forty days [525 BC] without making any progress, they returned to the Peloponnese. There is an asinine account that has been spread about that Polykrates [Polycrates of Samos, r. 538-522 BC] gave them a large sum of gilded lead Samian coins that he had struck, which they accepted and for that reason departed. This was the first time the Lacedaemonians had ever led an army into Asia.

● Herodotus (484-425 BC), Histories III: 56, 1-2 | Translated by Andrea L. Purvis & Robert B. Strassler. Copyright © 2007.

--------------------------------------------------------------------- « ● ● ● » ---------------------------------------------------------------------


The King [Darius I, r. 522-486 BC] uses the following method of storing his tribute income. After it has been melted down, it is poured into clay jars, and whenever a vessel is filled up, its clay is removed. Then, whenever he needs money, he strikes off and coins as much as he needs at the time.

● Herodotus (484-425 BC), Histories III: 96, 2 | Translated by Andrea L. Purvis & Robert B. Strassler. Copyright © 2007.

--------------------------------------------------------------------- « ● ● ● » ---------------------------------------------------------------------


{...} Darius [Darius I, r. 522-486 BC] gave him a present of two pairs of golden chains, which prompted Democedes [fl. late 500s-early 400s BC] to ask Darius if what he really meant by this was to dispense a double punishment to him for bringing him back to health. Delighted by this little joke, Darius sent him off to his wives, escorted by the eunuchs; and when the eunuchs informed the women that this was the man who gave life back to the King, each woman dipped a bowl into a chest of gold and presented it to Democedes. Indeed, they gave him such an extravagant amount that one of the servants, whose name was Skiton, collected an enormous sum of gold just by picking up the staters that fell from the bowls as he followed behind.

● Herodotus (484-425 BC), Histories III: 130, 4 | Translated by Andrea L. Purvis & Robert B. Strassler. Copyright © 2007.

--------------------------------------------------------------------- « ● ● ● » ---------------------------------------------------------------------


This Aryandes had been appointed governor of Egypt by Cambyses [Cambyses II, r. 525-522 BC]; later he was put to death for trying to act like the equal of Darius [Darius I, r. 522-486 BC]. He had personally seen and heard how Darius had set his heart on leaving behind a memorial to himself unlike any of those left by other kings, and Aryandes attempted to initiate the King in this until he received his just reward. What happened was that after Darius refined a quantity of gold to its highest possible purity and struck the most valuable coins from this metal, Aryandes, acting as the ruler of Egypt, did the same thing, but with silver. Even today, the purest silver coin is the Aryandic. But when Darius found out that Aryandes was doing this, he had him executed, although he did so on a different charge, accusing him of having revolted against him.

● Herodotus (484-425 BC), Histories IV: 166, 1-2 | Translated by Andrea L. Purvis & Robert B. Strassler. Copyright © 2007.


Editorial notes: {...} - Omitted text; [...] - Translation back to the original, clarification, or curator's commentary.

Source-Image(s): Volume III's source-images come from both internal and external resources. Every attempt is made to maximize use of the curator’s own photographic database. The rest of the source-images come from online resources and digital scans. In each case, the copyright holder’s permission was acquired and the courtesy gratefully acknowledged.
● Personal Photo Archive:
Alexei Alexeev Curator Ottawa, Canada alexeialexeev@rogers.com
● Museums' Numismatic Collections Online:
American Numismatic
Society (ANS)
MANTIS New York, USA www.numismatics.org
Ashmolean Museum
of Art and Archaeology
The Heberden Coin Room Oxford, UK www.hcr.ashmus.ox.ac.uk
Bibliothèque Nationale
de France
Cabinet des Médailles Paris, France www.medaillesetantiques.bnf.fr
British Museum Department of Coins and
Medals
London, UK www.britishmuseum.org
Fitzwilliam Museum Department of Coins and
Medals
Cambridge, UK www.fitzmuseum.cam.ac.uk
Hunterian Museum Department of Coins and
Medals
Glasgow, UK www.huntsearch.gla.ac.uk
Kunsthistorisches
Museum
Münzkabinett Vienna, Austria www.ikmk.at
Museum of Fine Arts Department of Coins and
Medals
Boston, USA www.mfa.org
Epigraphic & Numismatic
Museum
Main Collection Athens, Greece www.enma.gr
Pushkin State Museum
of Fine Arts
Coins & Medals Department Moscow, Russia www.coins-and-medals.ru
Staatliche Museen zu
Berlin (Altes Museum,
Bode Museum)
Münzkabinett Berlin, Germany www.ikmk.smb.museum
Staatliche Münzsammlung München Main Collection Munich, Germany www.staatliche-muenzsammlung.de
Institut für Altertumskunde,
Universität zu Köln
Münzsammlung Cologne, Germany www.muenzen.uni-koeln.de
● Specialized Numismatic Databases Online:
Aeqvitas Online Numismatic
Database
Uncertain Location www.aeqvitas.com
Ancient Numismatic Mythology Online Numismatic
Database
Uncertain Location www.ancientcoinage.org
Ancients Info The Online Resource for
Ancient Coins & Antiquities
Uncertain Location www.ancients.info
Asia Minor Coins Ancient Greek and Roman
Coins from Asia Minor
Uncertain Location www.asiaminorcoins.com
Coin India The Virtual Museum of
Indian Coins
Uncertain Location www.coinindia.com
Coin Talk Online Numismatic
Database
Uncertain Location www.cointalk.com
Livius Livius Onderwijs, Articles on Ancient History The Hague, Netherlands www.livius.org
Numisma Club Open Numismatic
Society
Uncertain Location www.numismaclub.com
Online Coins of the Roman Empire (OCRE) American Numismatic Society New York, USA www.numismatics.org/ocre
Perseus Digital Library Department of Classics, Tufts University Medford, USA www.nlp.perseus.tufts.edu
Roman Provincial Coinage Online (RPCO) Ashmolean Museum of Art
and Archaeology
Oxford, UK www.rpc.ashmus.ox.ac.uk
Sylloge Nummorum Graecorum (SNG) Department of Coins and Medals, Fitzwilliam Museum Cambridge, UK www.sylloge-nummorum-graecorum.org
● Numismatic Auctions' Consolidated Databases Online:
Ancient Coins Search Online Numismatic Auctions' Consolidated Database Root, Switzerland www.acsearch.info
Coin Archives Online Numismatic Auctions' Consolidated Database Uncertain Location www.coinarchives.com
Numis Bids Online Numismatic Auctions' Consolidated Database Uncertain Location www.numisbids.com
Six Bid Online Numismatic Auctions' Consolidated Database Uncertain Location www.sixbid.com
Wild Winds Online Numismatic Auctions' Consolidated Database Uncertain Location www.wildwinds.com
● Numismatic Shops & Auction Houses' Databases Online:
Artemide Aste Online Numismatic Shop &
Auction House's Database
Dogana, San Marino www.artemideaste.com
Bargain Bin Ancients Online Numismatic Shop & Auction House's Database Winter Park, USA www.bargainbinancients.com
Classical Numismatic Group Online Numismatic Shop &
Auction House's Database
Lancaster, USA www.cngcoins.com
CGB.fr Online Numismatic Shop &
Auction House's Database
Paris, France www.cgbfr.com
Forum Ancient Coins Online Numismatic Shop &
Auction House's Database
Morehead City, USA www.forumancientcoins.com
Silvae Coins Online Numismatic Shop & Auction House's Database Beverly Hills, USA www.silvaecoins.com
VCoins Online Numismatic Shop & Auction House's Database San Antonio, USA www.vcoins.com
● Printed Publications:
Boardman,
John, ed.
1981-
2009
Lexicon Iconographicum Mythologiae Classicae (LIMC). Volumes I-VIII. Indices. Supplementum. Zürich Artemis & Winkler Verlag
Kent,
John
1978 Roman Coins. New York Abrams
Kraay,
Colin Mackennal
1966 Greek Coins. London Thames & Hudson
Lane-Poole,
Stanley
1884-
1914
A Catalogue of the Indian Coins in the British
Museum (BMIC).
Volumes I-VI.
London Printed by Order
of the Trustees
Metcalf,
William E., ed.
2012 The Oxford Handbook of Greek and Roman Coinage. New York Oxford University Press
Poole,
Reginald Stuart
1963-
1965
A Catalogue of the Greek Coins in the British
Museum (BMC Greek).
Volumes I-XXVIII.
(1873-1927)
Bologna Arnaldo Forni Editore
Grueber,
Herbert Appold
1874-
1911
A Catalogue of the Roman Coins in the British
Museum (BMRC).
Volumes I-VII.
London Printed by Order
of the Trustees
Sutherland, Carol Humphrey Vivian 1984-
1994
The Roman Imperial Coinage (RIC). Volumes I-XIII. London Spink & Son

Note(s): (1) A minimalist approach is adopted for the descriptions of the bibliographic entries: in cases of multiple authors, publishers, or publishing locations, only the first entry from the full bibliographic description is listed. (2) In cases of modern reprints of the important works from the past, the date of the original publication is placed inside parentheses. In cases of translated works, both the original and English versions are listed. (3) An idiosyncratic universal formatting of entries is employed: all nouns, pronouns, numerals, adjectives, verbs, adverbs, and some categories of determiners are capitalised.

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