Serpentarium Mundi by Alexei Alexeev The Ancient Ophidian Iconography Resource (Mundus Vetus, 3000 BC - 650 AD)
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Batto,
Bernard Frank
1992 Slaying the Dragon: Mythmaking in the Biblical
Tradition.
Louisville Westminster/
John Knox Press
Charlesworth,
James Hamilton
2010 The Good and Evil Serpent: How a Universal
Symbol Became Christianized.
New Haven Yale University Press
Day,
John
1985 God's Conflict with the Dragon and the Sea:
Echoes of a Canaanite Myth in the Old Testament.
Cambridge Cambridge University Press
De Visser,
Marinus Willem
1913 The Dragon in China and Japan. Amsterdam Johannes Müller
Fontenrose,
Joseph
1959 Python: A Study of the Delphic Myth and Its Origins. Berkeley University of California Press
Huxley,
Francis
1979 The Dragon: Nature of Spirit, Spirit of Nature. London Thames & Hudson
Joines,
Karen Randolph
1974 Serpent Symbolism in the Old Testament: A Linguistic, Archaeological, and Literary Study. Haddonfield Haddonfield House
Mitropoulou,
Elpis
1977 Deities and Heroes in the Form of Snakes. Athens Pyli Editions
Morgan,
Diane
2008 Snakes in Myth, Magic, and History: The Story
of a Human Obsession.
Santa Barbara ABC-CLIO
Mundkur,
Balaji
1983 The Cult of the Serpent: An Interdisciplinary Survey of Its Manifestations and Origins. Albany State University of New York Press
Ogden,
Daniel
2013 Dragons, Serpents and Slayers in the Classical
and Early Christian Worlds. A Sourcebook.
Oxford Oxford University Press
Ogden,
Daniel
2013 Drakon: Dragon Myth and Serpent Cult in the Greek
and Roman Worlds.
Oxford Oxford University Press
Vogel,
Jean Philippe
1926 Indian Serpent-Lore, or the Nagas in Hindu Legend
and Art.
London Arthur Probsthain
Watkins,
Calvert
1995 How to Kill a Dragon: Aspects of Indo-European Poetics. New York Oxford University Press
Wilson,
Leslie Simon
2001 The Serpent Symbol in the Ancient Near East:
Nahash and Asherah: Death, Life, and Healing.
Lanham University Press
of America
Table 002. A selection of influential works on ancient ophidian mythology, symbolism, and iconography in various cultural contexts. This very concise list of literature can be expanded by adding other important publications in broader fields of research, including comprehensive reference works on various (i.e., not only ophiomorphic) mythological creatures; studies examining the cultural evolution of divine-human-animal relations in general; and essays on particular narratives, personages, and attributes.

This selected bibliography is part of a broader reference database created by Alexei Alexeev for his research on the genesis of ophidian symbolism and iconography in the context of Early Jewish and Early Christian apocalyptical thought, theology and lore. The inventory includes works of various degrees of merit: from seminal academic masterpieces, marked by rigorous scholarship, profound insights, and extensive scope, to works providing valuable information and posing important questions but sometimes failing to provide convincing answers, and to semi-professional essays more valuable for their passionate treatment of the subject than for any serious expertise or scholarly impartiality. Some works are included purely for their recognized antiquarian qualities and serve as a demonstration of the chronological and geographical span of the tradition in this field of research.

Angel,
Andrew R.
2006 Chaos and the Son of Man: The Hebrew Chaoskampf Tradition in the Period 515 BCE to 200 CE. London T & T Clark
Angel,
Andrew R.
2014 Playing with Dragons: Living with Suffering and God. Eugene Wipf & Stock Publishers
Anonymous

1972 Fauna and Flora of the Bible. London United Bible Societies
Avalon,
Arthur
(Sir John Woodroffe)
1919 The Serpent Power: Being the Sat-Cakra-Nirupana
and Paduka-Pancaka. Two Works on Laya-Yoga, Translated from the Sanskrit, with Introduction and Commentary.
London Luzac & Co.
Aymar,
Brandt
1956 Treasury of Snake Lore, from the Garden of Eden
to Snakes of Today, in Mythology, Fable, Stories, Essays,
Poetry, Drama, Religion, and Personal Adventures.
New York Greenberg
Ballentine,
Debra Scoggins
2015 The Conflict Myth and the Biblical Tradition. New York Oxford University Press
Barber,
Richard William
2000 A Dictionary of Fabulous Beasts. Woodbridge Boydell Press
Bates,
Roy
2002 Chinese Dragons. New York Oxford University Press
Bodenheimer,
Friedrich Simon
1960, 1972 Animal and Man in Bible Lands. Volumes I-II. Leiden Brill
Bölsche,
Wilhelm
1929 Drachen: Sage und Naturwissenschaft. Eine Volkstümliche Darstellung. Stuttgart Kosmos & Franckh'sche Verlagschandlung
Boulay,
Rene Andrew
1999 Flying Serpents and Dragons: The Story of Mankind's Reptilian Past. Escondido The Book Tree
Burkolter-Trachsel,
Max
1981 Der Drache: Das Symbol und der Mensch. Bern Verlag Paul Haupt
Busch,
Peter
1996 Der Gefallene Drache: Mythenexegese am Beispiel von Apokalypse 12. Tübingen A. Francke Verlag
Camerarius,
Joachim
1604 Symbolorum et Emblematum ex Aquatilibus et Reptilibus Desumptorum. Centuria Quarta. Heidelberg (?) Ernst Vögelin
(?)
Campbell,
Gordon Lindsay, ed.
2014 The Oxford Handbook of Animals in Classical
Thought and Life.
Oxford Oxford University Press
Campbell,
John Francis
2013 The Celtic Dragon Myth. (1911) Oxon Routledge
Cansdale,
George Soper
1970 Animals of Bible Lands. Exeter Paternoster Press
Charbonneau-Lassay, Louis 1940 Le Bestiaire du Christ. Paris Éditions Desclée de Brouwer
Same Author

1991
The Bestiary of Christ. (1940, French) New York Parabola Books
Cherry,
John
1995 Mythical Beasts. London British Museum Press
Clarke,
Hyde
1876 Serpent and Siva Worship and Mythology in Central America, Africa, and Asia and the Origin of Serpent Worship. London Trübner & Co.
Collins,
Adela Yarbro
2001 The Combat Myth in the Book of Revelation. Eugene Wipf & Stock Publishers
Collins,
Billie Jean, ed.
2002 A History of the Animal World in the Ancient
Near East.
Leiden Brill
Condren,
Mary
1989 The Serpent and the Goddess: Women, Religion,
and Power in Celtic Ireland.
San
Francisco
Harper & Row
Cooper,
Jean Campbell
1992 Symbolic and Mythological Animals. London Aquarian
Cox,
Harvey Gallagher
1967 On Not Leaving It to the Snake. New York Macmillan
Daneshvari,
Abbas
2011 Of Serpents and Dragons in Islamic Art:
An Iconographical Study.
Costa Mesa Mazda Publishers
Davies,
Le Grande
1986 Serpent Imagery in Ancient Israel: The Relationship Between the Literature and the Physical Remains. PhD Dissertation. Salt Lake
City
University of Utah
Deane,
John Bathurst
1830 The Worship of the Serpent Traced Throughout the World, and Its Traditions Referred to the Events in Paradise: Proving the Temptation and Fall of Man by the Instrumentality of a Serpent Tempter. London J. Hatchard & Son
Delacampagne,
Ariane
2003 Here Be Dragons: A Fantastic Bestiary. Princeton Princeton University Press
De Gubernatis,
Angelo
1872 Zoological Mythology or The Legends of Animals.
Volumes I-II.
London Trübner & Co.
De Waele,
Ferdinand Joseph
1927 The Magic Staff or Rod in Graeco-Italian Antiquity. The Hague Drukkerij Erasmus
Diény,
Jean-Pierre
1987 Le Symbolisme du Dragon dans la Chine Antique. Paris Collége de France, Institut des Hautes Études Chinoises
Döringer,
Heide-Renate
2015 Chinesische Drachen: Mythen - Märchen - Legenden aus dem Reich der Mitte. Norderstedt Books on Demand
Eason,
Cassandra
2008 Fabulous Creatures, Mythical Monsters, and Animal Power Symbols: A Handbook. Westport Greenwood Press
Egli,
Hans G.
1982 Das Schlangensymbol: Geschichte, Märchen, Mythos. Olten Walter Verlag
Erskine,
Thomas
1831 The Brazen Serpent; or, Life Coming through Death. Edinburgh Waugh & Innes
Evans,
Edward Payson
1896 Animal Symbolism in Ecclesiastical Architecture. New York Henry Holt & Co.
Fergusson,
James
1873 Tree and Serpent Worship or Illustrations of Mythology
and Art in India in the First and Fourth Centuries After Christ. From the Sculptures of the Buddhist Topes at Sanchi and Amravati.
London India Museum,
W.H. Allen & Co.
Fischle,
Willy H.
1983 Das Geheimnis der Schlange: Deutung eines Symbols. Stuttgart Adolf Bonz Verlag
Forsyth,
Neil
1987 The Old Enemy: Satan and the Combat Myth. Princeton Princeton University Press
Friedlander,
Walter J.
1992 The Golden Wand of Medicine: A History of the Caduceus Symbol in Medicine. New York Greenwood Press
Freimann,
Israel Meir
1865 Ein Beitrag zur Geschichte der Ophiten. Inaugural-Dissertation. Jena Herzoglich-Sächsischen Gesammtuniversität
Fritsche,
Herbert
1979 Die Erhönung der Schlange: Mysterium, Menschenbild
und Mirakel der Homöopathie.
Göttingen Ulrich Burgdorf Verlag
Ganszyniec,
Ricardus
1919 De Agathodaemone. Warszawa Nakladem Towarzystwa Naukowego Warszawskiego
Garber,
Marjorie, ed.
2003 The Medusa Reader. New York Routledge
Gardiner,
Philip
2005 The Serpent Grail: The Truth Behind the Holy Grail, the Philosopher's Stone and the Elixir of Life. London Watkins Publishing
Germond,
Philippe
2001 An Egyptian Bestiary: Animals in Life and Religion
in the Land of the Pharaohs.
London Thames & Hudson
Ghazal,
Eluan
1995 Schlangenkult und Tempelliebe: Sakrale Erotik in Archaischen Gesellschaften. Berlin Simon & Leutner
Verlag
Gilhus,
Ingvild Saelid
2006 Animals, Gods and Humans: Changing Attitudes to Animals in Greek, Roman and Early Christian Thought. Oxon Routledge
Golowin,
Sergius
1994 Drache, Einhorn, Oster-Hase und Anderes Phantastisches Getier. Basel Sphinx Verlag
Gould,
Charles
1886 Mythical Monsters. London W.H. Allen & Co.
Gruber,
Johann Nepomuk
1864 Die Ophiten oder Schlangenbrüder: Historische Inaugural-Abhandlung. Würzburg C. J. Becker'schen Buchdruckerei
Gunkel,
Hermann
1895 Schöpfung und Chaos in Urzeit und Endzeit: Eine Religionsgeschichtliche Untersuchung über Gen 1 und
Ap Jon 12.
Göttingen Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht
Same Author

2006 Creation and Chaos in the Primeval Era and the Eschaton: A Religio-Historical Study of Genesis 1 and Revelation 12. (1895, German) Grand
Rapids
William B. Eerdmans Publishing
Hanson,
Richard S.
1972 The Serpent Was Wiser: A New Look at Genesis 1-11. Minneapolis Augsburg
Hayes,
Luther Newton
1922 The Chinese Dragon. Shanghai Commercial Press
Heck,
Christian
2012 The Grand Medieval Bestiary: Animals in Illuminated Manuscripts. New York Abbeville Press
Henderson,
Joseph Lewis
1963 The Wisdom of the Serpent: The Myths of Death, Rebirth, and Resurrection. New York George Braziller
Henry,
Marie-Louise
1958 Das Tier im Religiösen Bewusstein des Alttestament-lichen Menschen. Tübingen Mohr Siebeck
Hönig
Adolf
1889 Die Ophiten. Ein Beitrag zur Geschichte des Jüdischen Gnosticismus. Berlin Itzkowski Verlag
Höpflinger,
Anna-Katharina
2010 Schlangenkampf: Ein Vergleich von Ausgewählten Bild-
und Textquellen aus dem Griechisch-Römischen und dem Altorientalischen Kulturraum.
Zürich Theologischer Verlag
Hopfner,
Theodor
1913 Der Tierkult der Alten Ägypter nach den Griechisch-Römischen Berichten und den Wichtigeren Denkmälern. Wien Denkschriften der Kaiserlichen Akademie der Wissenschaften
Houlihan,
Patrick F.
1996 The Animal World of the Pharaohs. London Thames & Hudson
Howey,
M. Oldfield
1926 The Encircled Serpent: A Study of Serpent Symbolism
in All Countries and Ages.
London William Rider & Son
Hunger,
Karl-Heinz
1978 Der Äskulapstab: Zur Funktion Präsentativer Symbole
in der Kommunikation.
Berlin Verlag Volker Spiess
Ingersoll,
Ernest
1928 Dragons and Dragon-Lore. New York Payson & Clarke
Janan,
Micaela
2009 Reflections in a Serpent's Eye: Thebes in Ovid's Metamorphoses. Oxford Oxford University Press
Johnson,
Buffie
1988 Lady of the Beasts: Ancient Images of the Goddess and
Her Sacred Animals.
San
Francisco
HarperSanFrancisco
Johnson,
Sally Barber
1990 The Cobra Goddess of Ancient Egypt: Predynastic, Early Dynastic, and Old Kingdom Periods. London Kegan Paul International
Jones,
David E.
2000 An Instinct for Dragons. London Routledge
Kalof,
Linda
2011 A Cultural History of Animals. Volumes I-VI. New York Bloomsbury Academic
Keimer,
Louis
1947 Histoires de Serpents dans l'Égypte Ancienne et Moderne. Cairo Institut Français d'Archéologie Orientale
Keller,
Otto
1913 Die Antike Tierwelt: Vögel, Reptilien, Fische, Insekten, Spinnentiere, Tausendfüssler, Krebstiere, Würmer, Weichtiere, Stachelhäuter, Schlauchtiere. Volumes I-II. Leipzig Wilhelm Engelmann
Kessler,
Dieter
1989 Die Heiligen Tiere und der König: Beiträge zu Organisation, Kult und Theologie der Spätzeitlichen Tierfriedhöfe. Wiesbaden Harrassowitz Verlag
Klingbeil,
Martin
1999 Yahweh Fighting from Heaven: God as Warrior and
as God of Heaven in the Hebrew Psalter and Ancient Near Eastern Iconography.
Fribourg Academic Press
Klingender,
Francis Donald
1971 Animals in Art and Thought to the End of the Middle Ages. London Routledge
& Kegan Paul
Kloos,
Carola
1986 Yhwh's Combat With the Sea: A Canaanite Tradition
in the Religion of Ancient Israel.
Leiden Brill
Koh,
Sejin
1994 An Archaeological Investigation of the Snake Cult in the Southern Levant: The Chalcolithic Period Through the Iron Age. PhD Dissertation. Chicago University of Chicago
König,
Karl
1967 Bruder Tier: Mensch und Tier in Mythos und Evolution. Stuttgart Fischer Taschenbuch Verlag
Korenyako,
Vladimir Aleksandrovich
2002 Искусство народов Центральной Азии и звериный стиль. (Art of Central Asia and the Animal Style). Moscow Vostochnaya Literatura
Korol'kova,
Elena Fyodorovna
2006 Звериный стиль Евразии. Искусство племён Нижнего Поволжья и Южного Приуралья в скифскую эпоху (VII-IV вв. до н.э.). Проблемы стиля и этно-культурной принад-лежности. (The Animal Style of Eurasia: Art of the Lower Volga and South Urals Tribes in Scythian Epoch (7-4 centuries B.C.). Problems of Style and Ethnocultural Affiliation). St.Petersburg Peterburgskoe Vostokovedenie
Kramp,
Willy
1970 Protest der Schlange: Signale zum Umdenken. Freiburg Verlag Kreuz
Kripal,
Jeffrey John
2007 The Serpent's Gift: Gnostic Reflections on the Study
of Religion.
Chicago University of Chicago Press
Krishna Murthy, Konakondla 1985 Mythical Animals in Indian Art. New Delhi Abhinav Publications
Kuehn,
Sarah
2011 The Dragon in Medieval East Christian and Islamic Art. Leiden Brill
Küster,
Erich
1913 Die Schlange in der Griechischen Kunst und Religion. Giessen Verlag von Alfred Töpelmann
Laeuchli,
Samuel
1966 The Serpent and the Dove: Five Essays on Early Christianity. Nashville Abingdon Press
Lancellotti,
Maria Grazia
2000 The Naassenes: A Gnostic Identity Among Judaism,
Christianity, Classical and Ancient Near Eastern Traditions.
Münster Ugarit-Verlag
Lapatin,
Kenneth D.S.
2003 Mysteries of the Snake Goddess: Art, Desire, and the Forging of History. Boston Da Capo Press
Leeming,
David Adams
2013 Medusa: In the Mirror of Time. London Reaktion Books
Leitz,
Christian
1997 Die Schlangennamen in den Ägyptischen und Griechischen Giftbüchern. Stuttgart Franz Steiner Verlag
Lins,
Heinz Maria
1990 Tiere in der Mythologie und Ihre Religiöse Symbolkraft. Frankfurt
am Main
S. Fischer Verlag
Lum,
Peter
1951 Fabulous Beasts. New York Pantheon Books
Lurker,
Manfred
1983 Adler und Schlange: Tiersymbolik im Glauben und
Weltbild der Völker.
Tübingen Rainer Wunderlich Verlag
Lutzer,
Erwin W.
1996 The Serpent of Paradise: The Incredible Story of How Satan's Rebellion Serves God's Purposes. Chicago Moody Publishers
Ma,
Changyi
2001 Gu Ben Shanhaijing Tu Shuo. (The Classic of Mountains and Seas: Ancient Illustrations with Annotations.) Jinan Shandong Huabao Chubanshe
Maehly,
J.
1867 Die Schlange im Mythos und Cultus der Classischen Völker. Basel Buchdruckerei von
C. Schultze
Martinek,
Manuela
1996 Wie die Schlange zum Teufel Wurde: Die Symbolik in der Paradeisgeschichte von der Hebräischen Bibel bis zum Koran. Wiesbaden Harrassowitz Verlag
Melyukova,
Anna Ivanovna
1976 Скифо-сибирский звериный стиль в искусстве народов Евразии. (Scytho-Siberian Animal Style in the
Art of Eurasia).
Moscow Nauka
Mertz,
Bernd A.
1997 Dein Archetypisches Tier: Von Katzen, Käuzen und
Anderen Menschen.
Kreuzlingen Ariston Verlag
Mode,
Heinz Adolf
1975 Fabulous Beasts and Demons. London Phaidon
Morris,
Paul, ed.
1992 A Walk in the Garden: Biblical, Iconographical and
Literary Images of Eden.
Sheffield Sheffield Academic Press
Newmyer,
Stephen Thomas
2011 Animals in Greek and Roman Thought: A Sourcebook. Oxon Routledge
Nigg,
Joseph
1995 Wonder Beasts: Tales and Lore of the Phoenix, the Griffin, the Unicorn, and the Dragon. Englewood Libraries Unlimited
Nigg,
Joseph, ed.
1999 The Book of Fabulous Beasts: A Treasury of Writings
from Ancient Times to Present.
New York Oxford University Press
Niles,
Douglas
2013 Dragons: The Myths, Legends, & Lore. Avon Adams Media
Nissenson,
Marilyn
1995 Snake Charm. New York Harry N. Abrams
Oldham,
Charles Frederick
1905 The Sun and the Serpent: A Contribution to the History
of Serpent-Worship.
London Archibald Constable
& Co.
Oliver,
James Arthur
1958 Snakes in Fact and Fiction. New York Macmillan
Oudemans,
Antoon Cornelis
1892 The Great Sea-Serpent: An Historical and Critical Treatise. Leiden Brill
Padget,
J. Michael, ed.
2003 The Centaur's Smile: The Human Animal in Early
Greek Art.
Princeton Princeton University Art Museum
Pagels,
Elaine
1989 Adam, Eve, and the Serpent: Sex and Politics in Early Christianity. New York Vintage Books
Pâques,
Viviana, ed.
1997 Serpents et Dragons en Eurasie. Eurasie: Cahiers de la Société des Études Euro-Asiatiques, №7. Paris L'Harmattan
Paul-Stengel,
Camilla
1996 Schlangenspuren: Reptilen und ihre Bedeutung in der Kulturgeschichte. Königstein Ulrike Helmer Verlag
Pinney,
Roy
1964 The Animals in the Bible: The Identity and Natural History
of All the Animals Mentioned in the Bible.
Philadelphia Chilton Books
Potter,
Edwin S.
1937 Serpents in Symbolism, Art and Medicine: The Babylonian Caduceus and the Aesculapian Club. Santa Barbara Privately Printed
Privat,
Jean-Marie, ed.
2000 Dans la Gueule du Dragon: Histoire, Éthnologie, Littérature. Metz Éditions Pierron
Rasimus,
Tuomas
2009 Paradise Reconsidered in Gnostic Mythmaking: Rethinking Sethianism in Light of the Ophite Evidence. Leiden Brill
Same Author

N/A Jesus the Animal. (Forthcoming). N/A N/A
Rauer,
Christine
2000 Beowulf and the Dragon: Parallels and Analogues. Cambridge D.S. Brewer
Renz,
Barbara
1930 Der Orientalische Schlangendrache: Ein Beitrag zum Verständnis der Schlange im Biblischen Paradies. Augsburg Verlag Literarisches Institut Von Haas & Grabherr
Ronecker,
Jean-Paul
1994 Le Symbolisme Animal: Mythes, Croyances, Légendes, Archetypes, Folklore, Imaginaire. Saint-Jean-de-Braye Éditions Dangles
Rosenberg,
Alfons
1956 Michael und der Drache: Urgestalten von Licht und Finsternis. Olten Walter Verlag
Rose,
Carol
2001 Giants, Monsters and Dragons: An Encyclopedia of Folklore, Legend, and Myth. New York W. W. Norton
Rostovtzeff,
Mikhail Ivanovich
1929 Animal Style in South Russia and China. Princeton Princeton University Press
Sälzle,
Karl
1965 Tier und Mensch, Gottheit und Dämon: das Tier in der Geistesgeschichte der Menschheit. München Bayerischer Land-wirtschaftsverlag
Samonà,
Giuseppe A.
1991 Il Sole, la Terra, il Serpente: Antichi Miti di Morte, Interpretazioni Moderne e Problemi di Comparazione Storico-Religiosa. Rome Bulzoni Editore
Sauer,
Gert
1992 Traumbild Schlange: Von der Vereinigung der Gegensätze. Olten Walter Verlag
Sax,
Boria
1998 The Serpent and the Swan: The Animal Bride in Folklore and Literature. Blacksburg McDonald & Woodward Publishing Company
Same Author

2001 The Mythical Zoo: An Encyclopedia of Animals in World Myth, Legend, and Literature. Santa Barbara ABC-CLIO
Same Author

2013 Imaginary Animals: The Monstrous, the Wondrous
and the Human.
London Reaktion Books
Schaefer,
Edward Hetzel
1980 The Divine Woman: Dragon Ladies and Rain Maidens in T'ang Literature. San
Francisco
North Point Press
Schechter,
Harold
1988 The Bosom Serpent: Folklore and Popular Art. Frankfurt
am Main
Peter Lang
Schlüter,
Margarete
1982 "Derāqôn" und Götzendienst: Studien zur Antiken Judischen Religionsgeschichte, Ausgehend von Einem Griechischen Lehnwort in mAZ III 3. Frankfurt
am Main
Peter Lang
Schmerber,
Hugo
1905 Die Schlange des Paradieses: Religionsgeschichtlisch-Kunsthistorische Studie. Strassburg J.H.E. Heitz Verlag
Schoebel,
Charles
1876 Le Mythe de la Femme et du Serpent: Étude sur les Origines d'une Évolution Psychologique Primordiale. Paris Maisonneuve et Cie, Libraires-Éditeurs
Schouten,
Jan
1967 The Rod and Serpent of Asklepios: Symbol of Medicine. Amsterdam Elsevier Publishing
Schumacher,
Johann Heinrich
1756 Erläuterung der Dunkeln und Schweren Lehrtafel der Alten Ophiten oder Schlangen-Brüder, nach den Geheimen Grundsätzen der Kabbalisten Abgefasset. Wolfenbüttel Johann Christoph Meißner
Schütz,
Johannes
1580 Serpens Antiquus, die Alte Schlange, Das Ist: Der Sacraments Teuffel. Eisleben Andreas Petri
Schwartz,
Friedrich Leberecht Wilhelm
1858 Die Altgriechischen Schlangengottheiten: Ein Beitrag zur Glaubensgeschichte der Urzeit. Berlin Nauckschen Buchdruckerei
Scurlock,
Jo Ann
2013 Creation and Chaos: A Reconsideration of Hermann Gunkel's Chaoskampf Hypothesis. Winona Lake Eisenbrauns
Seel,
Otto
1995 Der Physiologus: Tiere und ihre Symbolik. Zürich Artemis & Winkler Verlag
Sellon,
Edward
(Often misattributed to Jennings, Hargraves)
1889 Ophiolatreia: An Account of the Rites and Mysteries Connected with the Origin, Rise, and Development of Serpent Worship in Various Parts of the World, Enriched with Interesting Traditions, and a Full Description of the Celebrated Serpent Mounds & Temples, the Whole Forming an Exposition of One of the Phases of Phallic, or Sex Worship. Uncertain Privately Printed
Shuker,
Karl
1997 Drachen: Mythologie - Symbolik - Geschichte. Augsburg Bechtermünz Verlag
Siew,
Antoninus King Wai
2005 The War Between the Two Beasts and the Two Witnesses: A Chiastic Reading of Revelation 11:1-14:5. London T & T Clark
Simpson,
Jacqueline
1980 British Dragons. London B.T. Batsford
South,
Malcolm
1988 Mythical and Fabulous Creatures: A Sourcebook and Research Guide. New York Peter Bedrick Books
Stevens,
Karel
1984 De Iconografie van de Slang in Mesopotamië vanaf het Vijfde Millenium voor Christus tot het Einde van de Akkadische Periode. Magisterarbeit. Volumes I-II. Uncertain Unpublished
Strassberg,
Richard E.
2002 A Chinese Bestiary: Strange Creatures from the Guideways through Mountains and Seas (Shan Hai Jing). Berkeley University of California Press
Tilemannus,
Andreas Rivinus
1686 Sive Serpens Iste Antiquus Seductor è Gen. III.1. seqq. Ad Mentem Doctorum Judaeorum & Christianorum. Dissertatione Inaugurali Exhibitus. Leipzig Christophorus Fleischerus
Ullmann,
Manfred
1994 Das Schlangenbuch des Hermes Trismegistos. Wiesbaden Harrossowitz Verlag
Van Buren,
Elizabeth Douglas
1939 The Fauna of Ancient Mesopotamia as Represented
in Art.
Rome Pontificium Institutum Biblicum
Van der Geer,
Alexandra Anna Enrica
2008 Animals in Stone: Indian Mammals Sculpted through Time. Leiden Brill
Vinycomb,
John
1906 Fictitious & Symbolic Creatures in Art with Special Reference to Their Use in British Heraldry. London Chapman & Hall
Von Mosheim,
Johann Lorenz
1748 Geschichte der Schlangenbrüder der Ersten Kirche oder der so Genannten Ophiten. (Versuch einer Unpartheyi-schen und Gründlichen Ketzergeschichte). Helmstedt Christian Friederich Weygand
Wakeman,
Mary K.
1973 God's Battle with the Monster: Study in Biblical Imagery. Leiden Brill
Warburg,
Abraham Moritz
1988 Das Schlangenritual: Ein Reisebericht. (Written before 1929) Berlin Verlag Klaus Wagenbach
Werness,
Hope B.
2006 Continuum Encyclopedia of Animal Symbolism in World Art. New York Continuum International
West,
John Anthony
1993 Serpent in the Sky: The High Wisdom of Ancient Egypt. Wheaton Quest Books
Wilk,
Stephen R.
2000 Medusa: Solving the Mystery of the Gorgon. New York Oxford University Press
Young,
Bard
1996 The Snake of God: A Story of Memory and Imagination. Montgomery Black Belt Press
Zhang,
Yu Huan
1995 Who Can Ride the Dragon? An Exploration of the Cultural Roots of Traditional Chinese Medicine. Taos Paradigm Publications
Zerling,
Clemens H.
2003 Lexikon der Tiersymbolik: Mythologie, Religion, Psychologie. München Kösel Verlag
Zimmermann,
Friedrich
1912 Der Ägyptische Tierkult nach der Darstellung der Kirchenschriftsteller und die Ägyptischen Denkmäler. Inaugural-Dissertation. Kirchhain-Niederlausitz Max Schmersow
Zimniok,
Klaus
1984 Die Schlange das Unbekannte Wese: In der Kulturgeschichte, Freien Natur und im Terrarium. Hannover Landbuch Verlag

This specialized list can be supplemented by more general reference works on iconography, symbolism, and mythology. Some of the sources listed are of a theoretical or universal nature; the others are focused on culturally, historically, or geographically specific contexts.
● ICONOGRAPHY, SYMBOLISM & MYTHOLOGY:
Allardice,
Pamela
1991 Myths, Gods & Fantasy. Santa Barbara ABC-CLIO
Andrews,
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1981 The Mythic Image. Princeton Princeton University Press
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Same Author 1965 The Philosophy of Symbolic Forms. Volume I:
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Same Author 1981 Symbol, Myth, and Culture: Essays and Lectures of Ernst Cassirer, 1935-1945. (German) New Haven Yale University Press
Same Author 2013 The Warburg Years (1919-1933): Essays on Language,
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2005 The Oxford Companion to World Mythology. New York Oxford University Press
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2010 Creation Myths of the World: An Encyclopedia. Santa Barbara ABC-CLIO
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1991 Dictionary of Symbols. (1974, Swedish) New York W.W. Norton & Co.
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1984 Lexikon der Götter und Dämonen: Namen, Funktionen, Symbole/Attribute. Stuttgart Alfred Kröner Verlag
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1990 Die Botschaft der Symbole: In Mythen, Kulturen und Religionen. München Kösel Verlag
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1939 Studies in Iconology: Humanistic Themes in the Art of
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1988 Myths and Symbols in Pagan Europe: Early Scandinavian and Celtic Religions. Syracuse Syracuse University Press
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1996 Viking & Norse Mythology. New York Chancellor Publications
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2005 A Dictionary of Irish Mythology. New York Little, Brown & Co.
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● LEVANT & BIBLICAL TRADITION:
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2015 Iconographic Exegesis of the Hebrew Bible /
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Grabar,
André
1967 Le Premier Art Chrétien. Paris Éditions Gallimard
Same Author

1968 Early Christian Art: From the Rise of Christianity to the Death of Theodosius. (1967, French) New York Odyssey Press
Same Author

1968 Christian Iconography: A Study of Its Origins. Princeton Princeton University Press
Graves,
Robert
1964 Hebrew Myths. New York Doubleday Publishing
Hachlili,
Rachel
1988 Ancient Jewish Art and Archaeology in the Land
of Israel.
Leiden Brill
Same Author

1998 Ancient Jewish Art and Archaeology in the Diaspora. Leiden Brill
Same Author

2013 Ancient Synagogues - Archaeology and Art: New Discoveries and Current Research. Leiden Brill
Hastings,
James
1962 Dictionary of the Bible. New York Scribner's Sons
Heinz-Mohr,
Gerd
1998 Lexikon der Symbole: Bilder und Zeichen der Christlichen Kunst. München Eugen Diederichs Verlag
Hulme,
Frederick Edward
1892 The History, Principles, and Practice of Symbolism
in Christian Art.
London Swan Sonnenschein
& Co.
Jensen,
Robin Margaret
2000 Understanding Early Christian Art. Oxon Routledge
Keel,
Othmar
1972 Die Welt der Altorientalischen Bildsymbolik und das Alte Testament: Am Beispiel der Psalmen. Zürich Benziger Verlag
Same Author

1992 Das Recht der Bilder Gesechen zu Werden: Drei Fall-studien zur Methode der Interpretation Altorientalischer Bilder. Freiburg Universitätsverlag
Same Author

1992 Göttinnen, Götter und Gottessymbole. Freiburg Herder Verlag
Same Author

1997 The Symbolism of the Biblical World: Ancient Near Eastern Iconography and the Book of Psalms. (1972, German) Winona Lake Eisenbrauns
Same Author

1998 Gods, Goddesses, and Images of God in Ancient Israel. (1992, German) Minneapolis Fortress Press
Kirschbaum, Engelbert, ed. 1994 Lexikon der Christlichen Ikonographie (LCI). Band I: Allgemeine Ikonographie, A-O - Ezechiel; Band II: Fabelwesen - Kynokephalen; Band III: Laban - Ruth; Band IV: Saba, Königin von - Zypresse, Nachträge; Band V: Ikonographie der Heiligen, Aaron - Crescentianus von Rom; Band VI: Crescentianus von Tunis - Innocentia; Band VII: Innozenz - Melchisedech; Band VIII: Meletius - Zweiundvierzig Martyrer, Register. Freiburg Herder Verlag
Legge,
Francis
1964 Forerunners and Rivals of Christianity, From 330 B.C.
to 330 A.D. Volumes I-II.
(1914)
New York University Books
Levine,
Lee I.
2012 Visual Judaism in Late Antiquity: Historical Contexts of Jewish Art. New Haven Yale University Press
Lurker,
Manfred
1990 Wörterbuch Biblischer Bilder und Symbole. München Kösel Verlag
Lowden,
John
1997 Early Christian & Byzantine Art. London Phaidon
Marshall,
I. Howard, ed.
1996 New Bible Dictionary. Downers Grove InterVarsity Press
McKenzie,
John L.
1965 Dictionary of the Bible. New York Macmillan
Metford,
John C.
1983 Dictionary of Christian Lore and Legend. London Thames & Hudson
Milburn,
Robert
1988 Early Christian Art and Architecture. Berkeley University of California Press
Murray,
Peter
2013 The Oxford Dictionary of Christian Art and Architecture. Oxford Oxford University Press
Piggot,
Juliet
1986 Jewish Legends. London John Hamlyn
Porada,
Edith
1995 Man and Images in the Ancient Near East. London Moyer Bell
Preston,
Percy
1983 A Dictionary of Pictorial Subjects from Classical Literature: A Guide to Their Identification in Works of Art. New York Scribner's Sons
Pritchard,
James Bennett, ed.
1954 The Ancient Near East in Pictures Relating to the Old Testament. Princeton Princeton University Press
Same Author

1959 Ancient Near Eastern Texts Relating to the Old Testament. Princeton Princeton University Press
Prigent,
Pierre
1991 L'Image dans le Judaïsme: Du IIe au VIe Siècle. Genève Éditions Labor et Fides
Réau,
Louis
1955-
1959
Iconographie de l'Art Chrétien. Tome I: Introduction Generale. (1955); Tome II: Iconographie de la Bible, 1. Ancien Testament. (1956), 2. Nouveau Testament. (1957); Tome III: Iconographie des Saints, 1. A-F. (1958), 2. G-O. (1958), 3. P-Z, Répertois. (1959). Paris Presses Universitaires de France
Ryken,
Leland, ed.
1998 Dictionary of Biblical Imagery: An Encyclopaedic Exploration of the Images, Symbols, Motifs, Metaphors,
Figures of Speech, Literary Patterns and Universal
Images of the Bible.
Downers Grove InterVarsity Press
Schiller,
Gertrud
1966-
1980
Ikonographie der Christlichen Kunst.
Band I: Inkarnation, Kindheit, Taufe, Versuchung, Verklärung, Wirken und Wunder Christi. (1966); Band II: Die Passion Jesu Christi. (1968); Band III: Die Auferstehung und Erhöhung Christi. (1971); Band IV, 1: Die Kirche. (1976); Band IV, 2: Maria. (1980); Band V, 1: Die Apokalypse des Johannes. Textteil. (1990), Band V, 2: Die Apokalypse des Johannes. Bildteil. (1991); Registerbeiheft zu den Bänden I – IV, 2. (1980).
Gütersloh Verlag Mohn
Same Author

1971-
1972
Iconography of Christian Art. Volume I: Christ's Incarna-tion - Childhood - Baptism - Temptation - Transfiguration - Works and Miracles; Volume II: The Passion of Jesus Christ. Greenwich New York Graphic Society
Schreckenberg,
Heinz
1992 Jewish Historiography and Iconography in Early and Medieval Christianity. Assen Van Gorcum
Seibert,
Jutta
1980 Lexikon Christlichen Kunst: Themen, Gestalten, Symbole. Freiburg Herder Verlag
Sill,
Gertrude Grace
1975 A Handbook of Symbols in Christian Art. New York Simon & Schuster
Speake,
Jennifer
1994 The Dent Dictionary of Symbols in Christian Art. London J.M. Dent
Spier,
Jeffrey
2009 Picturing the Bible: The Earliest Christian Art. Fort Worth Kimbell Art Museum
Spitzing,
Günter
1989 Lexikon Byzantisch-Christlicher Symbole der Bildwelt Griechenlands und Kleinasiens. München Eugen Diederichs Verlag
Testa,
Emmanuele
1962 Il Simbolismo dei Giudeo-Cristiani. Jerusalem Tipografia dei PP. Francescani
Tristan,
Frédérick
1996 Les Premières Images Chrétiennes: Du Symbole à l'Icone, IIe - VIe Siècle. Paris Fayard
Van der Toorn,
Karel, ed.
1999 Dictionary of Deities and Demons in the Bible (DDD). Leiden Brill
Volbach,
Wolfgang Friedrich
1958 Frühchristliche Kunst: Die Kunst der Spätantike in West- und Ostrom. München Hirmer Verlag
Same Author

1961 Early Christian Art: The Late Roman and Byzantine Empi-res from the Third to the Seventh Centuries. (1958, German) New York Harry N. Abrams
Webber,
Fredrick Roth
1938 Church Symbolism: An Explanation of the More Important Symbols of the Old and New Testament, the Primitive, the Medieval, and the Modern Church. Cleveland J.H. Hansen
Weissenrieder,
Annette, ed.
2005 Picturing the New Testament: Studies in Ancient Visual Images. Tübingen Mohr Siebeck
Weitzmann,
Kurt, ed.
1980 Age of Spirituality: A Symposium. New York Metropolitan Museum of Art
West,
Edward
1989 Outward Signs: The Language of Christian Symbolism. New York Walker Books
Westenholz,
Joan Goodnick
2000 Images of Inspiration: The Old Testament in Early Christian Art. Jerusalem Bible Lands Museum
● EGYPT:
Bell,
Lanny
1994 Mythology and Iconography of Divine Kingship in Ancient Egypt. Chicago Richard J. Daley
College
Bonnet,
Hans
1952 Reallexikon der Ägyptischen Religionsgeschichte. Berlin Walter de Gruyter
Broekhuis,
Jan
1971 De Godin Renenwetet. Assen Van Gorcum
Clark,
R.T. Rundle
1960 Myth and Symbol in Ancient Egypt. New York Grove Press
Goff,
Beatrice L.
1979 Symbols of Ancient Egypt in the Late Period:
The Twenty-First Dynasty.
The Hague Mouton Publishers
Hart,
George
1986 A Dictionary of Egyptian Gods and Goddesses. London Routledge &
Kegan Paul
Same Author

1990 Egyptian Myths. London British Museum
Ions,
Veronica
1968 Egyptian Mythology. London John Hamlyn
Leitz,
Christian, ed.
2002-
2003
Lexikon der Ägyptischen Götter und Götterbezeich-nungen (LGG). Volumes I-VIII. Leuven Uitgeverij Peeters
Lurker,
Manfred
1964 Symbole der Alten Ägypter: Einführung und Kleines Wörterbuch. Weilheim Otto Wilhelm Barth Verlag
Same Author

1974 Lexikon der Götter und Symbole der Alten Ägypter: Handbuch der Mystischen und Magischen Welt Ägyptens. Weilheim Otto Wilhelm Barth Verlag
Same Author

1980 The Gods And Symbols Of Ancient Egypt:
An Illustrated Dictionary.
(1974, German)
London Thames & Hudson
Ockinga,
Boyo
1984 Die Gottebenbildlichkeit in Ägypten und im Alten Testament. Wiesbaden Harrassowitz Verlag
Pinch,
Geraldine
2004 Egyptian Mythology: A Guide to the Gods, Goddesses,
and Traditions of Ancient Egypt.
New York Oxford University Press
Remler,
Pat
2010 Egyptian Mythology A to Z. New York Chelsea House Publishers
Te Velde,
Herman
1967 Seth, God of Confusion: A Study of His Role in Egyptian Mythology and Religion. Leiden Brill
Wilkinson,
Richard H.
2003 The Complete Gods and Goddesses of Ancient Egypt. London Thames & Hudson
● MESOPOTAMIA:
Bahrani,
Zainah
2010 The Graven Image: Representation in Babylonia and Assyria. Philadelphia University of Pennsylvania Press
Black,
Jeremy
1992 Gods, Demons and Symbols of Ancient Mesopotamia: An Illustrated Dictionary. Austin University of Texas Press
Goff,
Beatrice Laura
1963 Symbols of Prehistoric Mesopotamia. New Haven Yale University Press
Gray,
John
1969 Near Eastern Mythology: Mesopotamia, Syria, Palestine. London John Hamlyn
Leick,
Gwendolyn
1991 A Dictionary of Ancient Near Eastern Mythology. London Routledge
McCall,
Henrietta
1990 Mesopotamian Myths. London British Museum
Ornan,
Tallay
2005 The Triumph of the Symbol: Pictorial Representation of Deities in Mesopotamia and the Biblical Image Ban. Fribourg Academic Press
Van Buren,
Elizabeth Douglas
1945 Symbols of Gods in Mesopotamian Art. Rome Pontificium Institutum Biblicum
● IRAN:
Boardman,
John
2000 Persia and the West: An Archaeological Investigation
of the Genesis of Achaemenid Persian Art.
London Thames and Hudson
Campbell,
Leroy A.
1968 Mithraic Iconography and Ideology. Leiden Brill
Hinnells,
John R.
1973 Persian Mythology. London John Hamlyn
Merkelbach,
Reinhold
1998 Mithras: Ein Persisch-Römischer Mysterienkult. Weinheim Beltz Athenäum
● GREAT STEPPE:
Akishev,
Alisher Kimalevich
1984 Искусство и мифология саков.
(The Art and Mythology of the Saka).
Alma-Ata Nauka
Bessonova,
Svetlana Sergeevna
1983 Религиозные представления скифов.
(Religiuos Views of the Scythians).
Kiev Naukova Dumka
Same Author

1997 Религия Скифов. (Religon of the Scythians). Nikolaev Vozmozhnosti
Kimmerii
Martynov,
Anatoliy Ivanovich, ed.
1987 Скифо-сибирский мир: искусство и идеология.
(The Scytho-Siberian World: Art and Ideology).
Novosibirsk Nauka
Raevskiy,
Dmitriy Sergeevich
1977 Очерки идеологии скифо-сакских племён. Опыт реконструкции скифской мифологии. (Selected
Essays on the Ideology of the Scytho-Sakian Tribes. Reconstruction of the Scythian Mythology).
Moscow Nauka
Same Author

1985 Модель мира скифской культуры. Проблемы мировоззрения ираноязычных народов евразийских степей I тыс. до н. э. (The Universal Model of the Scythian Culture. Worldview of the Iranian-Speaking Peoples of the Eurasian Steppes in the First Millenium B.C.). Moscow Nauka
Same Author

1993 Scythian Mythology. Sofia Secor
Same Author

2006 Мир скифской культуры. (The Universe of the Scythian Culture). Moscow Yazyki Slavyanskih Kul'tur
● CENTRAL ASIA:
Beer,
Robert
1999 The Encyclopedia of Tibetan Symbols and Motifs. Boston Shambhala
Same Author

2003 A Handbook of Tibetan Buddhist Symbols. Boston Shambhala
Errington,
Elizabeth, ed.
1992 The Crossroads of Asia: Transformation in Image and Symbol in the Art of Ancient Afghanistan and Pakistan. Cambridge Ancient India and Iran Trust
● INDIA:
Bhattacharyya,
Benoytosh
1958 The Indian Buddhist Iconography: Mainly Based on the
Sadhanamala and Cognate Tantric Texts of Rituals.
Calcutta Firma K.L. Mukhopadhyay
Bunce,
Fredrick William
2001 A Dictionary of Buddhist and Hindu Iconography: Objects & Symbols, Devices, Concepts, Rites and Terms. New Delhi D.K. Printworld
Coomaraswamy,
Ananda Kentish
1998 Elements of Buddhist Iconography. (1935) New Delhi Munshiram Manoharlal Publishers
Dehejia,
Vidya
1997 Discourse in Early Buddhist Art: Visual Narratives
of India.
New Delhi Munshiram Manoharlal Publishers
Dowson,
John
1879 A Classical Dictionary of Hindu Mythology and Religion, Geography, History, and Literature. London Trübner & Co.
Gopinatha Rao,
T.A.
1914,
1916
Elements of Hindu Iconography. Volumes I-II. Madras The Law Printing House
Ions,
Veronica
1967 Indian Mythology. London John Hamlyn
Leeming,
David Adams
2001 A Dictionary of Asian Mythology. New York Oxford University Press
Moor,
Edward
2006 Hindu Gods and Goddesses: 300 Illustrations from
"The Hindu Pantheon".
(1861)
Mineola Dover Publications
Stutley,
Margaret
1985 The Illustrated Dictionary of Hindu Iconography. London Routledge & Kegan Paul
Zimmer,
Heinrich
1992 Myths and Symbols in Indian Art and Civilization. (1946) Princeton Princeton University Press
● CHINA:
Birrell,
Anne
1993 Chinese Mythology: An Introduction. Baltimore Johns Hopkins University Press
Christier,
Anthony
1968 Chinese Mythology. London John Hamlyn
Eberhard,
Wolfram
1986 Dictionary of Chinese Symbols: Hidden Symbols in
Chinese Life and Thought.
London Routledge & Kegan Paul
Guter,
Josef
2004 Lexikon der Götter und Symbole der Alten Chinesen: Handbuch der Mystischen und Magischen Welt Chinas. Wiesbaden Marix-Verlag
Roberts,
Jeremy
2004 Chinese Mythology A to Z: A Young Reader's Companion. New York Facts on File
Welch,
Patricia Bjaaland
2008 Chinese Art: A Guide to Motifs and Visual Imagery. North Clarendon Tuttle Publishing
Werner,
Edward Theodore Chalmers
1922 Myths and Legends of China. London George G. Harrap & Co.
Werner,
Edward Theodore Chalmers
1932 Dictionary of Chinese Mythology. Shanghai Kelly & Walsh
Williams,
Charles Alfred Speed
1941 Chinese Symbolism and Art Motifs: A Comprehensive Handbook on Symbolism in Chinese Art through the Ages. Shanghai Kelly & Walsh
Yang,
Lihui
2005 Handbook of Chinese Mythology. Santa Barbara ABC-CLIO
Yang,
Xu Fei
2014 Zhongguo Hanhua Zaoxing Yishu Tudian. (Chinese
Han Dynasty Art Encyclopedia). Volume I: People; Volume II: Dragons; Volume III: Animals; Volume IV: Ornaments; Volume V: Auspices; Volume VI: Gods; Volume VII: Equipment; Volume VIII: Buildings.
Zhengzhou Elephant Press
Yuan,
Ke
1991 Dragons and Dynasties: An Introduction to Chinese Mythology. Beijing Foreign Languages Press
Same Author

1998 Zhongguo Shenhua Da Cidian. (A Comprehensive Dictionary of Chinese Mythology). Chengdu Sichuan Cizhu Chubanshe

Note(s): (1) Only monographs, collections of essays, and PhD dissertations are included; separate articles in academic journals and entries in dictionaries and encyclopaedias are omitted. However, almost all of the listed publications have extensive bibliographic entries, which can be used for further inquiry. (2) The full lists of the printed publications that provided the source-images and are focused on a particular artistic medium or object function are provided in the bibliographic sections of the respective volumes. (3) A minimalist approach is adopted for the descriptions of the bibliographic entries: in cases of multiple authors, publishers, or publishing locations, only the first entry from the full bibliographic description is listed. (4) In cases of modern reprints of important older works, the date of the original publication is placed inside parentheses. In cases of translated works, both the original and English versions are listed. (5) An idiosyncratic universal formatting of entries is employed: all nouns, pronouns, numerals, adjectives, verbs, adverbs, and some categories of determiners are capitalized.

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