Serpentarium Mundi by Alexei Alexeev The Ancient Ophidian Iconography Resource (Mundus Vetus, 3000 BC - 650 AD)
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CURATOR | OVERVIEW | CONTENT | CONTEXT | SOURCES | BIBLIOGRAPHY
Batto,
Bernard Frank
1992 Slaying the Dragon: Mythmaking in the Biblical Tradition.   Louisville Westminster/
John Knox Press
Charlesworth,
James Hamilton
2010 The Good and Evil Serpent: How a Universal Symbol Became Christianized.   New Haven Yale University Press
Day,
John
1985 God's Conflict with the Dragon and the Sea: Echoes of a Canaanite Myth in the Old Testament.   Cambridge Cambridge University Press
de Visser,
Marinus Willem
1913 The Dragon in China and Japan.   Amsterdam Johannes Müller
Fontenrose,
Joseph
1959 Python: A Study of the Delphic Myth and Its Origins.   Berkeley University of California Press
Huxley,
Francis
1979 The Dragon: Nature of Spirit, Spirit of Nature.   London Thames & Hudson
Joines,
Karen Randolph
1974 Serpent Symbolism in the Old Testament: A Linguistic, Archaeological, and Literary Study.   Haddonfield Haddonfield House
Mitropoulou,
Elpis
1977 Deities and Heroes in the Form of Snakes.   Athens Pyli Editions
Morgan,
Diane
2008 Snakes in Myth, Magic, and History: The Story of a Human Obsession.   Santa Barbara ABC-CLIO
Mundkur,
Balaji
1983 The Cult of the Serpent: An Interdisciplinary Survey of Its Manifestations and Origins.   Albany State University of New York Press
Ogden,
Daniel
2013 Dragons, Serpents and Slayers in the Classical and Early Christian Worlds. A Sourcebook.   Oxford Oxford University Press
Same
Author
2013 Drakon: Dragon Myth and Serpent Cult in the Greek and Roman Worlds.   Oxford Oxford University Press
Vogel,
Jean Philippe
1926 Indian Serpent-Lore, or the Nagas in Hindu Legend and Art.   London Arthur Probsthain
Watkins,
Calvert
1995 How to Kill a Dragon: Aspects of Indo-European Poetics.   New York Oxford University Press
Wilson,
Leslie Simon
2001 The Serpent Symbol in the Ancient Near East: Nahash and Asherah: Death, Life, and Healing.   Lanham University Press
of America
Table 002. A selection of influential works on ancient ophidian mythology, symbolism, and iconography in various cultural contexts. This very concise list of literature is supplemented by other important publications in broader fields of research, including comprehensive reference works on various (i.e., not only ophiomorphic) mythological creatures; studies examining the cultural evolution of divine-human-animal relations in general; essays on particular narratives, personages, and attributes; and more general reference works on iconography, symbolism, and mythology. Some of the sources listed are of a theoretical, universal, or comparative nature; the others are focused on culturally, historically, or geographically specific contexts.

THIS SELECTED BIBLIOGRAPHY is part of a broader reference database created by Alexei Alexeev for his research on the genesis of ophidian symbolism and iconography in the context of Early Jewish and Early Christian apocalyptic imagination. The inventory includes works of various degrees of merit: from seminal academic masterpieces, marked by rigorous scholarship, profound insights, and extensive scope, to works providing valuable information and posing important questions but sometimes failing to provide convincing answers, and to semi-professional essays more valuable for their passionate treatment of the subject than for any serious expertise or scholarly impartiality. Some works are included purely for their recognized antiquarian qualities and serve as a demonstration of the chronological and geographical span of the tradition in this field of research.



Seminal
Works

Comparative & General Studies

Greco-Roman World

Ancient & Medieval European Paganism

Anatolia, Levant
& Mesopotamia

Egypt

Biblical
Tradition

Arabia & Early
Islam

Iran, Caucasus & Central Asia

Great Steppe &
Eurasian Nomads

India, Tibet, Sri Lan-ka & Southeast Asia

China, Korea
& Japan

« ● COMPARATIVE & GENERAL STUDIES ● »
Aymar,
Brandt
1956 Treasury of Snake Lore, from the Garden of Eden to Sna-kes of Today, in Mythology, Fable, Stories, Essays, Poetry, Drama, Religion, and Personal Adventures.   New York Greenberg
Barber,
Richard William and Anne Riches
2000 A Dictionary of Fabulous Beasts.   Woodbridge Boydell Press
Bastian,
A.
1869 Das Thier in seiner mythologischen Bedeutung.   Zeitschrift für Ethnologie, Volume 1, 1869, pp. 45-66
Bender,
Cora, Thomas Hensel, and Erhard Schüttpelz, eds.
2012 Schlangenritual: Der Transfer der Wissensformen vom Tsu'ti'kive der Hopi bis zu Aby Warburgs Kreuzlinger Vor-trag.   Berlin Akademie Verlag
Blust,
Robert
2000 The Origin of Dragons.   Anthropos, Volume 95, Number 2, 2000, pp. 519-536
Bölsche,
Wilhelm
1929 Drachen: Sage und Naturwissenschaft. Eine volkstümliche Darstellung.   Stuttgart Kosmos & Franckh'sche Verlagschandlung
Boraas,
Roger S.
1978 Of Serpents and Gods.   Dialog, Volume 17, 1978, pp. 273-279
Boulay,
Rene Andrew
1999 Flying Serpents and Dragons: The Story of Mankind's Reptilian Past.   Escondido The Book Tree
Burkolter-Trachsel,
Max
1981 Der Drache: Das Symbol und der Mensch.   Bern Verlag Paul Haupt
Camerarius,
Joachim
1604 Symbolorum et Emblematum ex Aquatilibus et Rep-tilibus Desumptorum. Centuria Quarta.   Heidelberg (?) Ernst Vögelin
(?)
Cherry,
John
1995 Mythical Beasts.   London British Museum Press
Clarke,
Hyde and Charles Staniland Wake
1876 Serpent and Siva Worship and Mythology in Central America, Africa, and Asia and the Origin of Serpent Wor-ship.   London Trübner & Company
Cooper,
Jean Campbell
1992 Symbolic and Mythological Animals.   London Aquarian
Davis,
Varina Anne
1888 Serpent Myths.   The North American Review, Volume 146, Number 375, February 1888, pp. 161-171
de Gubernatis,
Angelo
1872 Zoological Mythology or The Legends of Animals. Volu-mes I-II.   London Trübner & Company
de Souza,
J.P.
1964 The Serpent as a Symbol of Life and Immortality.   Proceedings of the Indian History Congress, Volume 26, Part 1, 1964, pp. 99-108
Deane,
John Bathurst
1830 The Worship of the Serpent Traced throughout the World, and Its Traditions Referred to the Events in Paradise: Proving the Temptation and Fall of Man by the Instrumen-tality of a Serpent Tempter.   London J. Hatchard & Son
Delacampagne,
Ariane and Christian Delacampagne
2003 Here Be Dragons: A Fantastic Bestiary.   Princeton Princeton University Press
Dexter,
Miriam Robbins
2010 The Ferocious and the Erotic: "Beautiful" Medusa and the Neolithic Bird and Snake. [Especially: Figures 1, 2, 3].   Journal of Feminist Studies in Reli-gion, Volume 26, Number 1, Spring 2010, pp. 25-41
Dobkin de Rios,
Marlene
1977 On the Serpent Cult and Psychoactive Plants.   Current Anthropology, Volume 18, Number 3, September 1977, pp. 556-558
Eason,
Cassandra
2008 Fabulous Creatures, Mythical Monsters, and Animal Power Symbols: A Handbook.   Westport Greenwood Press
Egli,
Hans G.
1982 Das Schlangensymbol: Geschichte, Märchen, Mythos.   Olten Walter Verlag
Fischle,
Willy H.
1983 Das Geheimnis der Schlange: Deutung eines Symbols.   Stuttgart Adolf Bonz Verlag
Fritsche,
Herbert
1979 Die Erhönung der Schlange: Mysterium, Menschenbild und Mirakel der Homöopathie.   Göttingen Ulrich Burgdorf Verlag
Ghazal,
Eluan
1995 Schlangenkult und Tempelliebe: Sakrale Erotik in ar-chaischen Gesellschaften.   Berlin Simon & Leutner
Verlag
Gilhus,
Ingvild Saelid
2006 Animals, Gods and Humans: Changing Attitudes to Ani-mals in Greek, Roman and Early Christian Thought.   Abingdon Routledge
Gilmore,
David D.
2003 Monsters: Evil Beings, Mythical Beasts, and All Manner of Imaginary Terrors.   Philadelphia University of Pennsylvania Press
Golowin,
Sergius
1994 Drache, Einhorn, Oster-Hase und anderes phantas-tisches Getier.   Basel Sphinx Verlag
Gould,
Charles
1886 Mythical Monsters.   London W.H. Allen & Company
Henderson,
Joseph Lewis and Maud Oakes
1963 The Wisdom of the Serpent: The Myths of Death, Re-birth, and Resurrection.   New York George Braziller
Hornblower,
G.D.
1933 Early Dragon-Forms.
  Man, Volume 33, May 1933, pp. 79-87
Howey,
M. Oldfield
1926 The Encircled Serpent: A Study of Serpent Symbolism in All Countries and Ages.   London William Rider & Son
Hulme,
F. Edward
1877 The Use of Animal Forms in Ornamental Art. Chap-ters I-VI. [Especially: Figures 1, 5, 8, 11, 12, 13, 36, 47, 50, 53, 55, 59, 60, 62, 63, 66].   The Art Journal (1875-1887), New Se-ries, Volume 3, 1877, pp. 46-48, 109-111, 183-185, 269-271, 334-336, 375-377
Ingersoll,
Ernest
1928 Dragons and Dragon-Lore.   New York Payson & Clarke
Johnson,
Buffie
1988 Lady of the Beasts: Ancient Images of the Goddess and Her Sacred Animals.   San Fran-
cisco
HarperSanFrancisco
Jones,
David E.
2000 An Instinct for Dragons.   London Routledge
Kalof,
Linda and Brigitte
Resl, eds.
2007 A Cultural History of Animals. Volume I: Antiquity (2500 BC - 1000 AD); Volume II: Medieval Age (1000-1400); Volume III: Renaissance (1400-600); Volume IV: Age of Enlightenment (1600-1800); Volume V: Age of Empire (1800-1920); Volume VI: Modern Age (1920-2000).   Berg Oxford
Keller,
Otto
1913 Die antike Tierwelt: Vögel, Reptilien, Fische, Insekten, Spinnentiere, Tausendfüssler, Krebstiere, Würmer, Weich-tiere, Stachelhäuter, Schlauchtiere. Volumes I-II.   Leipzig Wilhelm Engelmann
Kessler,
Dieter
1989 Die Heiligen Tiere und der König: Beiträge zu Organi-sation, Kult und Theologie der spätzeitlichen Tierfriedhöfe.   Wiesbaden Harrassowitz Verlag
Klingender,
Francis Donald
1971 Animals in Art and Thought to the End of the Middle Ages.   London Routledge &
Kegan Paul
König,
Karl
1967 Bruder Tier: Mensch und Tier in Mythos und Evolution.   Stuttgart Fischer Taschenbuch Verlag
Kramp,
Willy
1970 Protest der Schlange: Signale zum Umdenken.   Freiburg Verlag Kreuz
Layton,
Robert
1984 Snakes and Dragons.   Man, Volume 19, Number 1, March 1984, pp. 150-157
Leonhard,
Karin
2011 Painted Poison: Venomous Beasts, Herbs, Gems, and Ba-roque Colour Theory. [Especially: Figures 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 15].   Nederlands Kunsthistorisch Jaar-boek (NKJ)/Netherlands Yearbook for History of Art, Volume 61, Art and Science in the Early Modern Netherlands/Kunst en wetenschap in de vroegmoderne Nederlanden, 2011, pp. 114-147
Lins,
Heinz Maria
1990 Tiere in der Mythologie und ihre religiöse Symbolkraft.   Frankfurt
am Main
S. Fischer Verlag
Lippincott,
Louise W.
1981 The Unnatural History of Dragons. [Especially: Figures 1, 2, 5, 6, 7 (and the colour plate), 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13 (and the colour plate), 15, 16, 17, 18].   Philadelphia Museum of Art Bulletin, Volume 77, Number 334, Winter 1981, pp. 3-24
Lum,
Peter
1951 Fabulous Beasts.   New York Pantheon Books
Lurker,
Manfred
1983 Adler und Schlange: Tiersymbolik im Glauben und Welt-bild der Völker.   Tübingen Rainer Wunderlich Verlag
Maehly,
J.
1867 Die Schlange im Mythos und Cultus der klassischen Völker.   Basel Buchdruckerei von
C. Schultze
Maringer,
Johannes
1977 Die Schlange in Kunst und Kult der vorgeschichtlichen Menschen. [Especially: Figures 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8].   Anthropos, Volume 72, Number 5/6, 1977, pp. 881-920
Marshack,
Alexander
1985 On the Dangers of Serpents in the Mind. [Especially: Figure 1].   Current Anthropology, Volume 26, Number 1, February 1985, pp. 139-145
Same Author

1985 More on Serpents in the Mind. [Especially: Figure 1].   Current Anthropology, Volume 26, Number 4, August-October 1985, pp. 537-539
Mertz,
Bernd A.
1997 Dein archetypisches Tier: Von Katzen, Käuzen und ande-ren Menschen.   Kreuzlingen Ariston Verlag
Mode,
Heinz Adolf
1975 Fabulous Beasts and Demons.   London Phaidon Press
Mundkur,
Balaji
1976 The Cult of the Serpent in the Americas: Its Asian Background; Reply. [Especially: Figures 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16]. Comments by Bolton, Ralph (p. 441); Borden, Charles E. (pp. 441-442); Hultkranz, Åke (p. 442); Kaneko, Erika (p. 443); Kelley, David H. (p. 443); Kornfield, William J. (pp. 443-444); McGee, Harold Franklin (pp. 444-445); Onuki, Yoshio (p. 445); Schubert, Mary (p. 445); Tu Er-wei, John (pp. 445-446).   Current Anthropology, Volume 17, Number 3, September 1976, pp. 429-441, 446-455
Same Author

1978 The Alleged Diffusion of Hindu Divine Symbols into Pre-Columbian Mesoamerica: A Critique; Reply. [Espe-cially: Figures 2, 3, 5, 8, 9]. Comments by Agogino, George (p. 568); Barthel, Thomas S. (pp. 568-569); Baudez, Claude F. (p. 569); Bond, Margaret N. (pp. 569-570); Brockington, Donald L. (p. 570); Broda, Johanna (p. 570); Coe, Michael D. (p. 571); Cohodas, Marvin (p. 571); Epstein, Jeremiah F. (pp. 571-572); González, Yólotl (p. 572); Henderson, John S. (pp. 572-573); Jairazbhoy, R.A. (p. 573); Kelley, David H. (pp. 573-574); Paddock, John (p. 574); Paulsen, Allison C. (pp. 574-575); Stewart, J.D. (p. 575).   Current Anthropology, Volume 19, Number 3, September 1978, pp. 541-568, 575-583
Same Author 1978 The Roots of Ophidian Symbolism.   Ethos, Volume 6, Number 3, Autumn 1978, pp. 125-158
Same Author 1984 The Bicephalous "Animal Style" in Northern Eurasian Religious Art and Its Western Hemispheric Analogues; Re-ply. [Especially: Figures 7, 8, 9, 10, 13, 30, 31, 33, 35, 36, 38, 41, 42, 44, 55, 66, 67, 68, 70]. Comments by Bandi, H.-G. (p. 474); Jett, Stephen C. (pp. 474-475); Kubler, George (p. 475); Murray, William Breen (pp. 475-476); Wicke, Charles R. (p. 476).   Current Anthropology, Volume 25, Number 4, August-October 1984, pp. 451-474, 476-482
Same Author 1985 Reply. (To Marshack, Alexander, On the Dangers of Ser-pents in the Mind, pp. 139-145). [Especially: Figures 1, 2, 3].   Current Anthropology, Volume 26, Number 1, February 1985, pp. 145-152
Nigg,
Joseph
1995 Wonder Beasts: Tales and Lore of the Phoenix, the Griffin, the Unicorn, and the Dragon.   Englewood Libraries Unlimited
Nigg,
Joseph, ed.
1999 The Book of Fabulous Beasts: A Treasury of Writings from Ancient Times to Present.   New York Oxford University Press
Niles,
Douglas
2013 Dragons: The Myths, Legends, & Lore.   Avon Adams Media
Nissenson,
Marilyn and Susan Jonas
1995 Snake Charm.   New York Harry N. Abrams
Oldham,
Charles Frederick
1905 The Sun and the Serpent: A Contribution to the History of Serpent-Worship.   London Archibald Constable
& Company
Oliver,
James Arthur
1958 Snakes in Fact and Fiction.   New York The MacMillan Company
Oudemans,
Antoon Cornelis
1892 The Great Sea-Serpent: An Historical and Critical Trea-tise.   Leiden Brill
Pâques,
Viviana, ed.
1997 Serpents et dragons en Eurasie. Eurasie: Cahiers de la Société des Études Euro-Asiatiques, №7.   Paris L'Harmattan
Paul-Stengel,
Camilla
1996 Schlangenspuren: Reptilien und ihre Bedeutung in der Kulturgeschichte.   Königstein Ulrike Helmer Verlag
Potter,
Edwin S.
1937 Serpents in Symbolism, Art and Medicine: The Baby-lonian Caduceus and the Aesculapian Club.   Santa Barbara Privately Printed
Privat,
Jean-Marie, ed.
2000 Dans la gueule du dragon: Histoire - Éthnologie - Litté-rature.   Metz Éditions Pierron
Ronecker,
Jean-Paul
1994 Le symbolisme animal: Mythes, croyances, légendes, ar-chetypes, folklore, imaginaire.   Saint-Jean-de-Braye Éditions Dangles
Rose,
Carol
2001 Giants, Monsters and Dragons: An Encyclopedia of Folklore, Legend, and Myth.   New York W.W. Norton & Company
Sälzle,
Karl
1965 Tier und Mensch, Gottheit und Dämon: Das Tier in der Geistesgeschichte der Menschheit.   München Bayerischer Land-wirtschaftsverlag
Samonà,
Giuseppe A.
1991 Il sole, la terra, il serpente: Antichi miti di morte, inter-pretazioni moderne e problemi di comparazione storico-reli-giosa.   Rome Bulzoni Editore
Sauer,
Gert
1992 Traumbild Schlange: Von der Vereinigung der Gegen-sätze, Träume als Wegweiser.   Olten Walter Verlag
Sax,
Boria
1998 The Serpent and the Swan: The Animal Bride in Folklore and Literature.   Blacksburg McDonald & Woodward Publishing Company
Same Author
2001 The Mythical Zoo: An Encyclopedia of Animals in World Myth, Legend, and Literature.   Santa Barbara ABC-CLIO
Same Author
2013 Imaginary Animals: The Monstrous, the Wondrous and the Human.   London Reaktion Books
Schechter,
Harold
1988 The Bosom Serpent: Folklore and Popular Art.   Frankfurt
am Main
Peter Lang
Schoebel,
Charles
1876 Le mythe de la femme et du serpent: Étude sur les ori-gines d'une évolution psychologique primordiale.   Paris Maisonneuve & Cie, Libraires-Éditeurs
Sellon,
Edward
(Often misattributed to Jennings, Hargraves)
1889 Ophiolatreia: An Account of the Rites and Mysteries Con-nected with the Origin, Rise, and Development of Serpent Worship in Various Parts of the World, Enriched with Interesting Traditions, and a Full Description of the Celebrated Serpent Mounds & Temples, the Whole Forming an Exposition of One of the Phases of Phallic, or Sex Worship.   Uncertain Privately Printed
Senter,
Phil, Uta Mattox, and Eid E. Haddad
2016 Snake to Monster: Conrad Gessner's Schlangenbuch and the Evolution of the Dragon in the Literature of Natural History. [Especially: Figures 2, 4].   Journal of Folklore Research, Volu-me 53, Number 1, January-April 2016, pp. 67-124
Shuker,
Karl
1997 Drachen: Mythologie - Symbolik - Geschichte.   Augsburg Bechtermünz Verlag
Slade,
Benjamin
2008 How (Exactly) to Slay a Dragon in Indo-European? PIE *bheid-{h₃ég whim, k w ŕmi-}.   Historische Sprachforschung/Histo-rical Linguistics, Volume 121, 2008, pp. 3-53
South,
Malcolm
1988 Mythical and Fabulous Creatures: A Sourcebook and Research Guide.   New York Peter Bedrick Books
Spence,
N.C.W.
2001 The Human Bestiary.   The Modern Language Review, Volu-me 96, Number 4, October 2001, pp. 913-930
St Clair,
Geo
1905 The Subtle Serpent.   The Journal of Theological Studies, Volume 7, Number 25, October 1905, pp. 40-50
van der Sluijs,
Marinus Anthony and Anthony L. Peratt
2009 The Ourobóros as an Auroral Phenomenon. [Especial-ly: Figure 1].   Journal of Folklore Research, Volu-me 46, Number 1, January-April 2009, pp. 3-41
Vinycomb,
John
1906 Fictitious & Symbolic Creatures in Art with Special Re-ference to Their Use in British Heraldry.   London Chapman & Hall
Volbach,
W.F.
1942 Oriental Influences in the Animal Sculpture of Cam-pania. [Especially: Figures 20, 21, 24].   The Art Bulletin, Volume 24, Number 2, June 1942, pp. 172-180
Wake,
Charles Staniland
1873 The Origin of Serpent-Worship.   The Journal of the Anthropological Institute of Great Britain and Ire-land, Volume 2, 1873, pp. 373-390
Waldau,
Paul and Kimberley Patton, eds.
2006 A Communion of Subjects: Animals in Religion, Science, and Ethics.   New York Columbia University Press
Warburg,
Abraham Moritz
1939 A Lecture on Serpent Ritual. [Especially: Figures 44b, 44e, 47a, 47b, 47c, 47d, 47e, 47f].   Journal of the Warburg Institute, Volume 2, Number 4, April 1939, pp. 277-292
Same Author 1988 Das Schlangenritual: Ein Reisebericht. [Much-delayed publication of the famous lecture given on the 25th of April 1923 at the Sanatorium Bellevue in Kreuzlingen, Thurgau, Switzerland].   Berlin Verlag Klaus Wagenbach
Same Author 1995 Images from the Region of the Pueblo Indians of North America. (Translated from the German with an in-terpretive essay by Michael P. Steinberg).   Ithaca Cornell University Press
Weigel,
Sigrid, Jeremy Gaines, and Rebecca Wallach
1995 Aby Warburg's Schlangenritual: Reading Culture and Reading Written Texts.   New German Critique, Number 65, Spring-Summer 1995, pp. 135-153
Weinreich,
Spencer J.
2015 Thinking with Crocodiles: An Iconic Animal at the Inter-section of Early-Modern Religion and Natural Philosophy. [Especially: Figures 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10].   Early Science and Medicine, Volume 20, Number 3, 2015, pp. 209-240
Werness,
Hope B.
2006 Continuum Encyclopedia of Animal Symbolism in World Art.   New York Continuum International
Williams,
N.J.A.
1989 Of Beasts and Banners: The Origin of the Heraldic Enfield.   The Journal of the Royal Society of Antiquaries of Ireland, Volume 119, 1989, pp. 62-78
Yahuda,
Abraham Shalom
1939 The Symbolism and Worship of the Serpent.   Religions, Volume 26, 1939, pp. 16-29
Young,
Bard
1996 The Snake of God: A Story of Memory and Imagination.   Montgomery Black Belt Press
Zerling,
Clemens H.
2003 Lexikon der Tiersymbolik: Mythologie, Religion, Psycho-logie.   München Kösel Verlag
Zimniok,
Klaus
1984 Die Schlange das unbekannte Wese: In der Kulturge-schichte, freien Natur und im Terrarium.   Hannover Landbuch Verlag



Seminal
Works

Comparative & General Studies

Greco-Roman World

Ancient & Medieval European Paganism

Anatolia, Levant
& Mesopotamia

Egypt

Biblical
Tradition

Arabia & Early
Islam

Iran, Caucasus & Central Asia

Great Steppe &
Eurasian Nomads

India, Tibet, Sri Lan-ka & Southeast Asia

China, Korea
& Japan

« ● GRECO-ROMAN WORLD ● »
Anonymous 1924 The Caduceus of Mercury and the Staff of Aesculapius.   The British Medical Journal, Volume 1, Number 3305, 3 May 1924, p. 794
Ardito,
Linda
1999 The Lyre and the Staff: Symbols of Magico-Medicinal Sound.   International Journal of Musicology, Volume 8, 1999, pp. 77-91
Aronen,
Jaakko
1996 Dragon Cults and Νύμφη Δράκαινα in IGUR 974.   Zeitschrift für Papyrologie und Epigra-phik, Volume 111, 1996, pp. 125-132
Bardes,
Charles
2006 Caduceus.   Agni, Number 63, 2006, pp. 235-238
Barnsley,
R.E.
1960 Rod and Serpent. [Especially: Figure 1].   The British Medical Journal, Volume 1, Number 5186, 28 May 1960, p. 1654
Barnsley,
R.E. and M.R. Das Gupta
1960 Rod and Serpent.   The British Medical Journal, Volume 2, Number 5198, 20 August 1960, p. 607
Bassett,
Sarah Guberti
1991 The Antiquities in the Hippodrome of Constantinople.   Dumbarton Oaks Papers, Volume 45, 1991, pp. 87-96
Bennett,
Florence M.
1909 The So-Called Mourning Athena. [Especially: Figures 2, 3, 4, 6, 7].   American Journal of Archaeology, Volume 13, Number 4, October-De-cember 1909, pp. 431-446
Bianchi Bandinelli,
Ranuccio
1969 Rome. Le centre du pouvoir. L'art romain des origines à la fin du IIe siècle. (L'univers des formes. Tome XV). [For the selection of relevant figures see the English edition, 1970].   Paris Éditions Gallimard
Same Author 1970 Rome. La fin de l'art antique. L'art de l'empire romain de Septime Sévère à Théodose Iᵉʳ. (L'univers des formes. Tome XVII). [For the selection of relevant figures see the English edition, 1971].   Paris Éditions Gallimard
Same Author 1970 Rome: The Centre of Power. Roman Art to AD 200. (The Arts of Mankind. Volume XV). (1969, French; Translated by Peter Green). [Especially: Figures 6, 21, 51, 52, 93, 139, 209, 210, 211, 212, 220, 222, 236, 238, 247, 249, 256, 265, 273, 310, 311, 321, 331, 336, 337, 345, 352, 368, 372, 374].   London Thames & Hudson
Same Author 1971 Rome: The Late Empire. Roman Art AD 200-400. (The Arts of Mankind. Volume XVII). (1970, French; Translated by Peter Green). [Especially: Figures 1, 18, 30, 38, 41, 48, 54, 64, 77, 78, 80, 92, 94, 124, 131, 134, 136, 137, 161, 195, 210, 216, 217, 229, 239, 245, 259, 296, 320, 325, 326, 327].   London Thames & Hudson
Bianchi Bandinelli,
Ranuccio and Antonio Giuliano
1973 Les Étrusques et l'Italie avant Rome. De la protohis-toire à la guerre sociale. (L'Univers des Formes. Tome XXI).   Paris Éditions Gallimard
Bieber,
Margarete
1957 A Bronze Statuette in Cincinnati and Its Place in the History of the Asklepios Types. [Especially: Figures 5, 6, 7, 8, 10, 11, 12, 14, 15, 16, 20, 26, 27, 28, 29, 30, 31, 32, 33, 34].   Proceedings of the American Philoso-phical Society, Volume 101, Number 1, 15 February 1957, pp. 70-92
Boardman,
John
1974 Athenian Black Figure Vases. [Especially: Figures 5.2, 11.1, 11.2, 16.1, 16.2, 38, 39, 46.1, 46.5, 48, 53, 62, 63.2, 65.1, 65.2, 69, 80, 86, 87, 93, 96, 103, 121.2, 123.2, 145.1, 152, 155, 157, 161.1, 161.2, 162, 163.1, 163.2, 165, 166, 177.2, 179, 188, 190, 191, 192, 195, 199, 205, 206, 209, 213, 220, 223, 225, 226, 227, 228, 233, 238, 240, 245.2, 290.2, 296.1, 297, 301.2, 304.1]. London Thames & Hudson
Same Author 1975 Athenian Red Figure Vases: The Archaic Period. [Es-pecially: Figures 3.2, 7, 10, 16, 22, 26.2, 29, 31, 38.2, 41.1, 42, 49, 50.2, 52, 54, 55.3, 61.2, 65, 77, 88, 94, 95, 101, 111, 132.1, 135.1, 139, 144, 146.2, 153, 155, 160, 176, 185, 186, 187, 188, 193, 196, 198.1, 207, 214.1, 218, 223.1, 245.2, 248, 252.1, 252.2, 253.2, 257.3, 262.1, 264, 269, 271.1, 285.1, 288, 289, 296, 299.2, 307.1, 309, 310, 320, 323.2, 329, 332, 338.1, 349, 350.1, 355, 357, 359, 366, 375].   London Thames & Hudson
Same Author 1978 Greek Sculpture: The Archaic Period. (1991: Corrected edition: Thames & Hudson, London). [Especially: Figures 42, 79, 123, 173, 187, 188, 192, 193, 196, 197, 199.1, 205.3, 206, 206.1, 212.1, 212.2, 215.1, 216, 253, 261.B, 262, 263].   London Thames & Hudson
Same Author 1985 Greek Sculpture: The Classical Period (1991: Corrected edition: Thames & Hudson, London). [Especially: Figures 22, 64, 77, 82.2, 97, 98, 99, 100, 101, 102, 103, 106, 107, 108, 110, 111, 134a, 146, 169, 177, 183, 199, 201, 202, 203, 204, 205, 206, 239.4, 241].   London Thames & Hudson
Same Author 1989 Athenian Red Figure Vases: The Classical Period. [Especially: Frontispiece; Figures 4.2, 5, 6, 9, 10, 11, 15.1, 15.2, 17, 19, 22, 23, 25, 31, 33, 34, 39, 42, 43, 55, 65, 68, 73.1, 92, 103, 106.2, 109, 136, 137, 144, 150, 155, 157.1, 157.2, 158.1, 170, 173, 183, 184.1, 189, 194, 195, 196, 197, 200, 217, 218, 238, 240, 244.2, 250, 255, 259, 266, 289.2, 292.1, 292.2, 294.1, 294.2, 303, 310, 317, 322, 325, 326, 329.3, 331, 333, 334, 337.2, 342, 343, 348, 349, 351, 366, 372, 373, 374, 378, 380.2, 390.2, 393].   London Thames & Hudson
Same Author 1995 Greek Sculpture: The Late Classical Period and Scul-pture in Colonies and Overseas. [Especially: Figures 10.5, 16, 23.2, 27, 39, 46, 64, 65, 67, 78, 81, 87, 88, 89, 137, 147, 155, 157.1, 160.1, 162, 166, 207, 221.2, 231, 237, 244].   London Thames & Hudson
Same Author 1998 Early Greek Vase Painting. 11th-6th Centuries BC. [Espe-cially: Frontispiece; Figures 1, 68, 93, 94, 98, 99, 142, 170, 173, 178.2, 208.1, 208.2, 211, 239, 256, 272, 297, 303, 358, 362, 365, 371, 375, 380, 388.1, 388.3, 392.2, 395, 401, 402, 403, 408, 409.6, 414, 420.1, 422, 423, 428, 430, 431, 434, 435, 437, 450, 451, 455, 458.3, 459, 467, 468, 469, 473.1, 476, 482.2, 485.1, 494, 495.1, 496, 497]. London Thames & Hudson
Bodson,
Liliane
1981 Les Grecs et leurs serpents. Premiers résultats de taxo-nomique des sources anciennes. [Especially: Figures 1, 2, 7].   L'Antiquité Classique, Volume 50, Num-ber 1/2, 1981, pp. 57-78
Same Author 2003 A Python (Python Sebae Gmelin) for the King: The Third Century BC Herpetological Expedition to Aithiopia (Diodorus of Sicily 3.36-37). [Especially: Figure 1].   Museum Helveticum, Volume 60, Num-ber 1, 2003, pp. 22-38
Bowers,
Susan R.
1990 Medusa and the Female Gaze.   The National Women's Studies Asso-ciation Journal (NWSA Journal), Vo-lume 2, Number 2, Spring 1990, pp. 217-235
Boyce,
George K.
1937 Corpus of the Lararia of Pompeii. [Especially: Plates 1.4, 2.2, 4.1, 8.2, 8.3, 9.1, 9.2, 9.3, 10.1, 10.2, 11.1, 12.2, 12.4, 13.1, 13.2, 14.2, 15.1, 15.2, 16.1, 16.2, 17.1, 17.2, 18.1, 20, 21.1, 21.2, 22.1, 22.2, 22.3, 23.1, 23.2, 24.1, 24.2, 25.1, 25.2, 26.1, 26.2, 27.1, 27.2, 28.1, 28.2, 28.3, 28.4, 30.2, 31.1, 31.2, 34.4, 36.1, 36.2, 40.3].   Memoirs of the American Academy in Rome, Volume 14, 1937, pp. 5-112
Same Author 1942 Significance of the Serpents on Pompeian House Shrines. [Especially: Figures 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7].   American Journal of Archaeology, Volume 46, Number 1, January-March 1942, pp. 13-22
Bravo,
Jorge J. and Michael Mackinnon
2018 Excavations at Nemea IV: The Shrine of Opheltes. [Especially: Chapter 3: The Myth of Opheltes and the Origin of the Nemean Games, pp. 101-140; Chapter 4: Representa-tions of the Hero Opheltes in Art, pp. 141-170; Chapter 5: The Shrine of Opheltes in the Context of Greek Hero Cult, pp. 171-182].   Oakland University of California Press
Brendel,
Otto Johannes
1978 Etruscan Art. (1995: Second edition: Yale University Press, New Haven). [Especially: Figures 27, 55, 61, 92, 93, 97, 98, 100, 105, 108, 149, 163, 164, 170, 248, 262, 269, 271, 272, 289, 292, 309, 318, 319].   Harmonds-worth Penguin Books
Buxton,
Richard
2004 The Complete World of Greek Mythology. [Especially: Figures on pp. 4-5, 6 top, 14-15, 19, 21, 24, 26 top, 28, 29, 45 top, 47 top, 53 top, 53 bottom, 55 top, 56-57, 60, 60-61, 61, 76, 83 top, 87 bottom, 104 top, 104-105, 105, 112 bottom, 113 bottom, 114 top, 117 top, 118 bottom, 121 top, 121 bottom, 122, 122 top left, 132 top, 135, 137 bottom left, 139 top left, 143 top, 160 bottom, 161 bottom, 171 top, 194 bottom, 217 top, 217 bottom, 218-219, 245 bottom].   London Thames & Hudson
Cameron,
A. and A.W. Sampey
1960 Rod and Serpent.   The British Medical Journal, Volume 1, Number 5190, 25 June 1960, p. 1959
Campbell,
Gordon Lindsay, ed.
2014 The Oxford Handbook of Animals in Classical Tho-ught and Life.   Oxford Oxford University Press
Carpenter,
Thomas H.
1991 Art and Myth in Ancient Greece. [Especially: Frontispie-ce; Figures 5, 12, 21, 24, 32, 34, 40, 41, 44, 47, 65, 70, 73, 76, 81, 84, 85, 86, 87, 88, 95a, 96, 97, 99, 100, 103, 104, 111, 112, 116, 119, 131, 132, 137, 149, 150, 151, 152, 153, 154, 155, 156, 157, 158, 159, 161, 162, 163, 164, 168, 169, 170, 171, 173, 178, 179, 180, 182, 185, 199, 204, 205, 211, 212, 213, 214, 215, 216, 225, 232, 239, 242, 244, 249, 252, 266, 270, 277, 278, 283, 290, 292, 294, 298, 300, 305.2, 310, 316, 326, 328, 330.2, 332, 335, 339, 345, 355, 356]. London Thames & Hudson
Caskey,
L.D.
1915 A Chryselephantine Statuette of the Cretan Snake Goddess. [Especially: Figures 2, 6].   American Journal of Archaeology, Volume 19, Number 3, July-Sep-tember 1915, pp. 237-249
Castelletti,
Cristiano
2012 Why Is Jason Climbing the Dragon? A Hidden Cataste-rism in Valerius Flaccus' Argonautica 8.   Illinois Classical Studies, Number 37, 2012, pp. 141-165
Charbonneaux,
Jean, Roland Martin, and François Villard
1968 Grèce archaïque (620-480 avant J.-C.). (L'univers des for-mes. Tome XIV). [For the selection of relevant figures see the English edition, 1971].   Paris Éditions Gallimard
Same Authors 1969 Grèce classique (480-330 avant J.-C.). (L'univers des for-mes. Tome XVI). [For the selection of relevant figures see the English edition, 1972].   Paris Éditions Gallimard
Same Authors 1970 Grèce hellénistique (330-50 avant J.-C.). (L'univers des formes. Tome XVIII). [For the selection of relevant figures see the English edition, 1973].   Paris Éditions Gallimard
Same Authors 1971 Archaic Greek Art: 620-480 BC (The Arts of Mankind. Vo-lume XIV). (1968, French; Translated by James Emmons and Robert Allen). [Especially: Figures 16, 17, 24, 30, 46, 47, 48, 53, 56, 61, 62, 64, 75, 76, 79, 82, 85, 86, 87, 99, 106, 110, 112, 125, 126, 127, 133, 152, 158, 183, 184, 185, 221, 271, 339, 340, 345, 348, 361, 368, 373, 384, 386, 387, 391, 398, 400, 401].   London Thames & Hudson
Same Authors 1972 Classical Greek Art: 480-330 BC (The Arts of Mankind. Volume XVI). (1969, French; Translated by James Emmons). [Especially: Figures 156, 187, 208, 212, 234, 242, 246, 256, 262, 256, 266, 274, 280, 295, 296, 297, 299, 308, 312, 322, 331, 335, 338, 341, 346, 348, 349, 357, 359, 377, 379, 381, 385, 392, 393].   London Thames & Hudson
Same Authors 1973 Hellenistic Art: 330-50 BC (The Arts of Mankind. Volume XVIII). (1970, French; Translated by Peter Green). [Especi-ally: Figures 46, 47, 115, 117, 123, 157, 159, 166, 181, 182, 183, 185, 189, 190, 236, 271, 287, 288, 290, 291, 293, 294, 295, 296, 300, 301, 333, 336, 362].   London Thames & Hudson
Charlesworth,
James H.
2004 Phenomenology, Symbology, and Lexicography, the Amazingly Rich Vocabulary for "Serpent" in Ancient Greek.   Revue Biblique, Volume 111, Number 4, October 2004, pp. 499-515
Compton
Michael T.
2002 The Association of Hygieia with Asklepios in Graeco-Roman Asklepieion Medicine. [Especially: Figures 2, 3, 4].   Journal of the History of Medicine and Allied Sciences, Volume 57, Num-ber 3, July 2002, pp. 312-329
Cool
H.E.M.
2000 The Significance of Snake Jewellery Hoards.   Britannia, Volume 31, 2000, pp. 29-40
Coulston,
Jonathan Charles Nelson
1991 The Draco Standard.   Journal of Roman Military Equipment Studies, Volume 2, 1991, pp. 101-114
Dasteridou,
Magdalini
2015 Fear and Healing through the Serpent Imagery in Greek Tragedy. Master's Thesis.   Cambridge Harvard Extension School
Davis,
S.
1953 Argeiphontes in Homer: The Dragon-Slayer.   Greece & Rome, Volume 22, Number 64, February 1953, pp. 33-38
de Waele,
Ferdinand Joseph Maria
1927 The Magic Staff or Rod in Graeco-Italian Antiquity.   The Hague Drukkerij Erasmus
Del Chiaro,
Mario A.
1981 A Monumental Etruscan Medusa Head. [Especially: Fi-gures 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 9].   The J. Paul Getty Museum Journal, Volume 9, 1981, pp. 53-58
Delcourt,
Marie and Robert L. Rankin
1965 The Last Giants.   History of Religions, Volume 4, Num-ber 2, Winter 1965, pp. 209-242
Demargne,
Pierre
1964 Naissance de l'art grec. (L'univers des formes. Tome VI).   Paris Éditions Gallimard
Same Author 1964 Aegean Art: The Origins of Greek Art. (The Arts of Man-kind. Volume VI). (1964, French; Translated by Stuart Gilbert and James Emmons). [Especially: Figures 202, 212, 213, 303, 353, 363, 382, 384, 385, 388, 428, 432, 433, 525].   London Thames & Hudson
Deonna,
Waldemar
1952 Ouroboros. [Especially: Figure 1].   Artibus Asiae, Volume 15, Number 1/2, 1952, pp. 163-170
Same Author 1954 Bijoux annulaires, et spécialement colliers, en forme de serpents.   Artibus Asiae, Volume 17, Number 2, 1954, pp. 155-167
Same Author 1954 Bijoux annulaires, et spécialement colliers, en forme de serpents II.   Artibus Asiae, Volume 17, Number 3/4, 1954, pp. 265-281
Same Author 1957 L'âme pupilline et quelques monuments figurés. [Es-pecially: Plates I, II; Figures 2, 3, 4, 5].   L'Antiquité Classique, Volume 26, Number 1, 1957, pp. 59-90
Dimitrova,
Nora
2002 Inscriptions and Iconography in the Monuments of the Thracian Rider. [Especially: Figures 1, 2, 3, 5, 6, 8].   Hesperia: The Journal of the Ame-rican School of Classical Studies at Athens, Volume 71, Number 2, April-June 2002, pp. 209-229
D'Irsay,
Stephen
1935 The Cult of Asklepios.   Bulletin of the Institute of the History of Medicine, Volume 3, Number 6, June 1935, pp. 451-482
Dock,
Lavinia L. (In charge of, Foreign Department)
1904 An Ancient Greek Sanitarium. [Especially: Unnumbered figure Hygeia].   The American Journal of Nursing, Volume 5, Number 2, November 1904, pp. 117-120
Dow,
Sterling and Frieda S. Upson
1944 The Foot of Sarapis. [Especially: Figures 1, 2, 3, 5, 6, 7].   Hesperia: The Journal of the Ame-rican School of Classical Studies at Athens, Volume 13, Number 1, Janu-ary-March 1944, pp. 58-77
Dunbabin,
Katherine M.D.
1999 Mosaics of the Greek and Roman World. [Especially: Figures 15, 16, 39, 41, 42, 46, 47, 49, 57, 62, 63, 67, 90, 94, 97, 99, 104, 105, 125, 129, 132, 139, 140, 144, 146, 152, 153, 155, 162, 173, 174, 202, 207, 210, 212, 213, 214, 223, 238, 242, 245, 256, 257, 263, 299, 311, 314; Plates 1, 7].   New York Cambridge University Press
Durando,
Furio, ed.
2001 Ancient Italy: Journey in Search of Works of Art and the Principal Archaeological Sites. [Especially: Figures on pp. 25, 34 top, 59 center, 60-61, 64 top left, 70-71, 71 bottom, 96-97, 120-121 top, 141 right, 142-143, 146-147, 170 bottom left, 173 bottom right, 176 top, 177 bottom right, 182 bottom left, 197, 198-199 bottom, 200 bottom, 201 bottom left, 202 center, 207 top, 214 left, 217 top, 229 bottom, 236-237, 237 bottom, 247 bottom, 267, 284 top].   Vercelli White Star
Egmond,
Florike
1995 The Cock, the Dog, the Serpent, and the Monkey. Re-ception and Transmission of a Roman Punishment, or Histo-riography as History.   International Journal of the Classical Tradition, Volume 2, Number 2, Fall 1995, pp. 159-192
Engle,
Bernice S.
1929 The Use of Mercury's Caduceus as a Medical Emblem.   The Classical Journal, Volume 25, Number 3, December 1929, pp. 204-208
Faraone,
Christopher A.
2013 The Amuletic Design of the Mithraic Bull-Wounding Scene. [Especially: Figures 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9].   The Journal of Roman Studies, Volu-me 103, 2013, pp. 96-116
Farnell,
L.R.
1882 The Pergamene Frieze: Its Relation to Literature and Tradition. [Especially: Unnumbered figures Zeus Group from Pergamene Frieze, Athene Group from Pergamene Frieze].   The Journal of Hellenic Studies, Vo-lume 3, 1882, pp. 301-338
Same Author 1883 The Pergamene Frieze (Continued).   The Journal of Hellenic Studies, Vo-lume 4, 1883, pp. 122-135
Same Author 1885 The Pergamene Frieze (Continued).   The Journal of Hellenic Studies, Vo-lume 6, 1885, pp. 102-142
Finkielsztejn,
Gérald
1986 Asklepios Leontoukhos et le mythe de la coupe de Césarée Maritime. [Especially: Figures 1, 3, 4].   Revue Biblique, Volume 93, Number 3, 1986, pp. 419-428
Flower,
Harriet I.
2017 The Dancing Lares and the Serpent in the Garden: Religion at the Roman Street Corner.   Princeton Princeton University Press
Friedlander,
Walter J.
1992 The Golden Wand of Medicine: A History of the Caduce-us Symbol in Medicine.   New York Greenwood Press
Frothingham,
A.L.
1911 Medusa, Apollo, and the Great Mother. [Especially: Fi-gures 1, 2, 5a, 5b, 6, 10, 11, 12, 14].   American Journal of Archaeology, Volume 15, Number 3, July-Septem-ber 1911, pp. 349-377
Same Author 1916 Babylonian Origin of Hermes the Snake-God, and of the Caduceus. [Especially: Figures 1, 3, 5, 6, 7a, 7b, 8, 9, 18, 19, 21b, 41].   American Journal of Archaeology, Volume 20, Number 2, April-June 1916, pp. 175-211
Ganszyniec,
Ricardus
1919 De Agathodaemone.   Warszawa Nakladem Towarzystwa Naukowego Warszawskiego
Garber,
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J. Vickers, eds.
2003 The Medusa Reader.   New York Routledge
Geiger,
Joseph
2012 Asclepius Λεοντουχος.   Mnemosyne, Fourth Series, Volume 65, Fascicle 2, 2012, pp. 315-318
Gesell,
Geraldine C.
2010 The Snake Goddesses of the LM IIIB and LM IIIC Periods. [Especially: Figure 13.1, 13.2, 13.3, 13.6, 13.7, 13.8].   British School at Athens Studies, Vo-lume 18, Cretan Offerings: Studies in Honour of Peter Warren, 2010, pp. 131-139
Gill,
M.A.V.
1963 The Minoan Dragon.   Bulletin of the Institute of Classical Studies, Number 10, 1963, pp. 1-12
Glynn,
Ruth
1981 Herakles, Nereus and Triton: A Study of Iconography in Sixth Century Athens. [Especially: Figures 1, 2, 3, 6, 7].   American Journal of Archaeology, Volume 85, Number 2, April 1981, pp. 121-132
Gordon,
Hymie
1960 Rod and Serpent.   The British Medical Journal, Volume 2, Number 5191, 2 July 1960, p. 72
Guaitoli,
Maria Teresa
2006 Rome: History and Treasures of an Ancient Civilization. [Especially: Figures on pp. 2-3, 13, 42-43, 53, 62 left, 72-73, 73, 76, 78 left, 82-83, 84-85, 111 top, 144-145, 168 bottom right, 169, 171 center, 172, 190-191].   Vercelli White Star
Halm-Tisserant,
Monique
1986 Le gorgonéion, emblème d'Athéna: Introduction du mo-tif sur le bouclier et l'égide. [Especially: Figures 1.2, 1.3, 2, 3.2, 3.3, 3.4, 3.5, 3.6, 3.7, 3.8, 3.9, 3.10, 3.11, 3.12, 3.13, 3.14, 3.15, 4.1, 4.2, 4.3, 4.4, 5.2, 5.2, 5.3].   Revue Archéologique, Nouvelle Série, Fascicle 2, 1986, pp. 245-278
Harl,
Kenneth W.
1991 Livy and the Date of the Introduction of the Cisto-phoric Tetradrachma.   Classical Antiquity, Nouvelle Série, Volume 10, Number 2, October 1991, pp. 268-297
Higgins,
Reynold
1967 Minoan and Mycenian Art. (1981: Revised second editi-on: Thames & Hudson, London). [Especially: Figures 3, 22, 23, 114, 117, 119, 129, 137, 142, 182, 183, 209, 239]. London Thames & Hudson
Höpflinger,
Anna-Katharina
2010 Schlangenkampf: Ein Vergleich von ausgewählten Bild- und Textquellen aus dem griechisch-römischen und dem alt-orientalischen Kulturraum.   Zürich Theologischer Verlag
Hostetler,
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2007 Serpent Iconography. [Especially: Figures 1, 2, 3, 5, 8, 9, 10, 11].   Etruscan Studies, Volume 10, Article 16, 2007, pp. 203-210
Howe,
Thalia Phillies
1954 The Origin and Function of the Gorgon-Head.   American Journal of Archaeology, Volume 58, Number 3, July 1954, pp. 209-221
Hunger,
Karl-Heinz
1978 Der Äskulapstab: Zur Funktion präsentativer Symbole in der Kommunikation.   Berlin Verlag Volker Spiess
Jackson,
Howard M.
1985 The Meaning and Function of the Leontocephaline in Roman Mithraism.   Numen, Volume 32, Fascicle 1, July 1985, pp. 17-45
Janan,
Micaela
2009 Reflections in a Serpent's Eye: Thebes in Ovid's Meta-morphoses.   Oxford Oxford University Press
Jesi,
Furio
1959 The Gorgon. [Especially: Figures on p. 92 right top, 92 right bottom].   East and West, Volume 10, Number 1/2, March-June 1959, pp. 88-93
Karanika,
Andromache
2011 The End of Nekyia: Odysseus, Heracles, and the Gorgon in the Underworld.   Arethusa, Volume 44, Number 1, Winter 2011, pp. 1-27
Koch,
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2006 Römische Sarkophage. [Especially: Plates 12, 22, 23, 36, 37, 43, 52, 76, 78, 152, 155, 163, 166, 167, 168, 173, 177, 178, 179, 180, 181, 190, 192, 195, 196, 197, 198, 203, 204, 205, 206, 208, 209, 210, 215, 216, 218, 221, 223, 224, 225, 226, 227, 228, 230, 234, 237, 239, 240, 241, 242, 243, 244, 245, 249, 253, 258, 262, 263, 267, 268, 282, 304, 307, 310, 311, 316, 319, 324, 327, 337, 344, 349, 355, 357, 360, 369, 373, 377, 385, 388, 406, 419, 452, 453, 473, 480, 483, 484, 487, 489, 490, 501, 504, 509, 511, 512, 515, 516, 539, 540, 542, 551, 558, 560, 562, 566, 571, 572, 573, 576, 577, 588, 593, 595].   München C.H. Beck'sche Verlag-buchhandlung
Küster,
Erich
1913 Die Schlange in der griechischen Kunst und Religion. [Especially: Figures 1, 12, 13, 16, 17, 26, 27, 31, 32].   Giessen Verlag von Alfred Töpelmann
Lapatin,
Kenneth D.S.
2003 Mysteries of the Snake Goddess: Art, Desire, and the Forging of History.   Boston Da Capo Press
Leeming,
David Adams
2013 Medusa: In the Mirror of Time.   London Reaktion Books
LIMC 1981-
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Lowe,
Dunstan
2012 Sabazius in the Aeneid (7.341-60).   Vergilius, Volume 58, 2012, pp. 81-91
Magagnini,
Antonella
2008 The Etruscans: History and Treasures of an Ancient Civili-zation. [Especially: Figures on pp. 11, 60-61, 63, 64, 72 top, 96, 97 right, 110 right, 111, 118, 122 left, 124-125, 128 right, 131, 166-167, 180, 196, 196-197, 198].   Vercelli White Star
Maggi,
Stefano
2007 Greece: History and Treasures of an Ancient Civilization. [Especially: Figures on pp. 6-7, 28 bottom right, 39, 65, 66, 76 left, 77, 79, 90, 92 top, 98 bottom right, 93, 97 top right, 97 bottom, 101, 115 top, 115 bottom, 116-117 top, 116-117 center, 155, 181, 192 top, 193, 194].   Vercelli White Star
Martens,
Brian
2018 The Statuary of Asklepios from the Athenian Agora.   Hesperia: The Journal of the Ame-rican School of Classical Studies at Athens, Volume 87, Number 3, July-September 2018, pp. 545-610
Mitchell-Boyask,
Robin
2007 The Athenian Asklepieion and the End of the Philoc-tetes.   Transactions of the American Philo-logical Association, Volume 137, Number 1, Spring 2007, pp. 85-114
Neils,
Jenifer
2013 Salpinx, Snake, and Salamis: The Political Geography of the Pella Hydria. [Especially: Figures 1, 5, 6, 8, 9, 10].   Hesperia: The Journal of the Ame-rican School of Classical Studies at Athens, Volume 82, Number 4, October-December 2013, pp. 595-613
Nethercut,
William R.
1974 Snakes in the Aenid: Two Comments.   Vergilius, Number 20, 1974, pp. 20-23
Newmyer,
Stephen Thomas
2011 Animals in Greek and Roman Thought: A Sourcebook.   Abingdon Routledge
Nickel,
Helmut
1989 Of Dragons, Basilisks, and the Arms of the Seven Kings of Rome. [Especially: Figures 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 18, 19, 20, 21, 26].   Metropolitan Museum Journal, Volu-me 24, 1989, pp. 25-34
Nilsson,
Martin P.
1951 The Anguipede of the Magical Amulets.   The Harvard Theological Review, Volume 44, Number 1, January 1951, pp. 61-64
Nousek,
Debra L.
2008 Turning Points in Roman History: The Case of Caesar's Elephant Denarius. [Especially: Figures 1, 5, 6].   Phoenix, Volume 62, Number 3/4, Fall-Winter 2008, pp. 290-307
Padget,
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2003 The Centaur's Smile: The Human Animal in Early Greek Art.   Princeton Princeton University Art Museum
Palaiologou,
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1995 "Minoan Dragons" on a Sealstone from Mycenae.   Bulletin of the Institute of Classical Studies, Supplement, Number 63, Klados: Essays in Honour of J.N. Coldstream, 1995, pp. 195-199
Papadopoulos,
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Deborah Ruscillo
2002 A Ketos in Early Athens: An Archaeology of Whales and Sea Monsters in the Greek World. [Especially: Figures 19, 20, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29, 30, 31].   American Journal of Archaeology, Volume 106, Number 2, April 2002, pp. 187-227
Pappalardo,
Umberto and Rosaria Ciardiello
2010 Mosaici greci e romani: Tappeti di pietra in età ellenis-tica e romana. [For the selection of relevant figures see the English edition, 2012].   San Giovan-
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Same Author 2012 Greek and Roman Mosaics. (2010, Italian; Translated by Ceil Friedman). [Especially: Figures 8, 50, 66, 69, 70, 82, 83, 94, 97, 98, 102, 103, 118, 121, 124, 128, 129, 137, 138, 152, 161, 173, 194, 197, 208, 213, 232].   New York Abbeville Press
Pearce,
Arnold
2002 Where's Our Serpent?   The British Medical Journal, Volume 1, Number 5742, 23 January 1971, p. 234
Phillips,
Kyle M., Jr.
1968 Perseus and Andromeda. [Especially: Figures 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 17, 24, 25, 26, 37, 41, 42, 43, 47, 48, 49, 53, 58, 59].   American Journal of Archaeology, Volume 72, Number 1, January 1968, pp. 1-23
Picard,
Ch.
1943 Sanctuaires, représentations et symboles de Zeus Meilichios.   Revue de l'histoire des religions, Vo-lume 126, 1943, pp. 97-127
Same Author 1956 Nouvelles observations sur diverses représentations du Héros Cavalier des Balkans.   Revue de l'histoire des religions, Vo-lume 150, Number 1, 1956, pp. 1-26
Pieraccini,
Lisa C.
2016 Sacred Serpent Symbols: The Bearded Snakes of Etruria. [Especially: Figures 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11].   Journal of Ancient Egyptian Inter-connections, Volume 10, September 2016, pp. 92-102
Renberg,
Gil H.
2006 Public and Private Places of Worship in the Cult of Asclepius at Rome. [Especially: Figures 5a, 5b, 6, 7, 8, 10, 11, 12a, 12b, 12c, 13].   Memoirs of the American Academy in Rome, Volume 51/52, 2006/2007, pp. 87-172
Richer,
Nicolas
2010 Elements of the Spartan Bestiary in the Archaic and Classical Periods. In Powell, Anton and Stephen Hodkinson, eds., Sparta: The Body Politic, 2010, pp. 1-84.   Swansea The Classical Press
of Wales
Ridgway,
Brunilde Sismondo
1977 The Plataian Tripod and the Serpentine Column. [Es-pecially: Illustration 1; Figures 1, 2, 3].   American Journal of Archaeology, Volume 81, Number 3, Summer 1977,
pp. 374-379
Robinson,
Alice M.
1978 The Cult of Asklepius and the Theatre.   Educational Theatre Journal, Volu-me 30, Number 4, December 1978, pp. 530-542
Rodríguez-Pérez,
Diana
2015 Guardian Snakes and Combat Myths: An Iconographi-cal Approach. In Lang-Auinger, Claudia and Elisabeth Trinkl, eds., Corpus Vasorum Antiquorum, Österreich, Booklet 2: ΦΥΤΑ ΚΑΙ ΖΩΙΑ. Pflanzen und Tiere auf Griechischen Vasen, 2015, pp. 147-154.   Wien Austrian Academy of Sciences Press
Ross,
D.J.A.
1963 Olympias and the Serpent: The Interpretation of a Baal-bek Mosaic and the Date of the Illustrated Pseudo-Callisthe-nes. [Especially: Figures 1c, 1d, 1e, 2a, 2b, 2c, 2d, 2e, 6a, 6b].   Journal of the Warburg and Court-auld Institutes, Volume 26, Number 1/2, 1963, pp. 1-21
Salapata,
Gina
2006 The Tippling Serpent in the Art of Lakonia and Beyond. [Especially: Figures 1, 2a, 2b, 2c, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11].   Hesperia: The Journal of the Ame-rican School of Classical Studies at Athens, Volume 75, Number 4, Octo-ber-December 2006, pp. 541-560
Schefold,
Karl
1964 Frügriechische Sagenbilder.   München Hirmer Verlag
Same Author 1966 Myth and Legend in Early Greek Art. (1964, German; Translated by Audrey Hicks).   London Thames & Hudson
Same Author 1978 Götter- und Heldensagen der Griechen in der spätar-chaischen Kunst. [For the selection of relevant figures see the English edition, 1992].   München Hirmer Verlag
Same Author 1981 Die Göttersage in der klassischen und hellenistischen Kunst. [Especially: Figures 2, 5, 10, 14, 19, 21, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 31, 36, 39, 44, 45, 54, 55, 56, 58, 59, 61, 62, 63, 65, 68, 71, 72, 76, 77, 84, 87, 90, 94, 109, 113, 115, 118, 120, 122, 124, 128, 131, 135, 136, 138, 139, 140, 141, 142, 143, 144, 152, 153, 155, 156, 157, 158, 159, 160, 164, 191, 200, 202, 204, 205, 231, 232, 248, 285, 325, 348, 352, 353, 354, 355, 375, 377, 379, 382, 385, 388, 396, 432, 433, 435, 449, 460, 463].   München Hirmer Verlag
Same Author 1988 Die Urkönige, Perseus, Bellerophon, Herakles und Theseus in der klassischen und hellenistischen Kunst. [Espe-cially: Figures 8, 19, 21, 24, 25, 26, 36a, 41, 49, 48, 64, 65, 68, 69, 70, 71, 76, 97a, 106, 110, 120, 121, 122, 123, 124, 126, 127, 128, 129, 130, 133, 134, 135, 137, 138, 139, 140, 142, 145, 150, 152, 153, 156, 158, 159, 160, 161, 167, 168a, 176, 181, 182, 184, 186, 190, 191, 215, 222, 237, 242, 243, 272, 273, 274, 276, 278, 285, 290, 291, 292b, 293, 305, 309, 322, 323, 324, 325, 331, 343, 344].   München Hirmer Verlag
Same Author 1989 Die Sagen von den Argonauten, von Theben und Tro-ia in der klassischen und hellenistischen Kunst. [Especially: Figures 1, 9, 14, 15, 26a, 26b, 26bis, 27, 43, 51, 57, 59, 60, 61, 74, 78, 79, 80, 82, 83, 84, 86, 89, 124bis, 129b, 130, 152bis, 153, 159, 165, 171, 172, 175, 187, 188bis.a, 188bis.b, 194, 198, 205a, 205b, 207, 208a, 210, 224, 236, 241, 243, 249a, 250, 251, 252, 255, 263, 271, 276, 277, 304, 307, 312].   München Hirmer Verlag
Same Author 1992 Gods and Heroes in Late Archaic Greek Art. (1978, Ger-man; Translated by Alan Griffiths). [Especially: Figures 1, 4, 5, 6, 7, 14, 21, 23, 26, 31, 34, 35, 36, 37, 38, 39, 41, 43, 45, 46, 47, 49, 51, 56, 58, 59, 66, 68, 70, 71, 78, 82, 91, 94, 95, 96, 97, 98, 101, 103, 106, 110, 111, 114, 116, 118, 119, 121, 131, 134, 138, 140, 143, 146, 147, 149, 150, 151, 152, 153, 155, 156, 158, 159, 164, 165, 166, 169, 175, 177, 178, 180, 181, 182, 183, 188, 191, 192, 193, 195, 213, 219, 243, 248, 249, 250, 251, 252, 257, 268, 270, 281, 285, 288, 291, 292, 297, 303, 307, 312, 322, 326, 329, 330, 332, 338, 342, 345, 350, 353, 360, 361].   Cambridge Cambridge University Press
Same Author 1993 Götter- und Heldensagen der Griechen in der früh- und hocharchaischen Kunst. [Especially: Figures 25, 57a, 57b, 60, 61, 62, 63, 63bis.b, 64, 65, 66, 67, 69a, 69b, 70, 71, 72, 73, 74, 75, 76, 77b, 78b, 86, 86bis, 116, 128a, 133a, 150, 170, 173, 181a, 181b, 183, 185, 186, 189a, 190a/b, 196, 197, 198, 199, 209, 217, 228, 229i, 238, 239, 240, 240bis.a, 240bis.b, 241a, 241b, 242a, 245, 246, 251, 252a, 252b, 252c, 255, 260, 261, 263, 264, 267, 272bis, 299, 300, 301, 303, 308, 309, 310, 313, 316, 316bis, 320bis, 321, 322, 324, 332, 333a, 334, 339, 345, 349, 351, 358, 363, 366, 370, 376, 379].   München Hirmer Verlag
Schouten,
Jan
1967 The Rod and Serpent of Asklepios: Symbol of Medicine.   Amsterdam Elsevier Publishing
Schwartz,
Friedrich Leberecht Wilhelm
1858 Die altgriechischen Schlangengottheiten: Ein Beitrag zur Glaubensgeschichte der Urzeit.   Berlin Nauckschen Buchdruckerei
Sharland,
Suzanne
2011 Ghostly Guests and Venomous Snakes: Traces of Civil War in Horace, Satires 2.8.   Acta Classica, Volume 54, 2011, pp. 79-100
Soubiran,
Jean
2004 Mythologie et astronomie III. Python et le Dauphin (Sénèque, Med. 700).   Pallas, Number 66, 2004, pp. 37-47
Spier,
Jeffrey
1990 Emblems in Archaic Greece.   Bulletin of the Institute of Classical Studies, Number 37, 1990, pp. 107-129
Steger,
Florian
2005 Der Neue Asklepios Glykon/The New Asklepios Glykon.   Medizinhistorisches Journal, Volume 40, Number 1, 2005, pp. 3-18
Stephenson
Paul
2016 The Serpent Column: A Cultural Biography.   New York Oxford University Press
Stilp,
Florian
2011 Scylla l'ambivalente. [Especially: Figures 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 11, 12, 13, 14].   Revue Archéologique, Number 1, 2011, pp. 3-26
Streisand,
Lena
2015 Liminality & the Fantastic: Snakes in Ancient Athe-nian Visual and Material Culture from the Archaic to the Hellenistic Periods. Undergraduate Honors Theses, Paper 965.   Boulder University of Colorado
Stubbs,
H.W.
1997 Laocoon Again.   Vergilius, Volume 43, 1997, pp. 3-18
Suhr,
E.G.
1969 The Daughter of the Dragon.   Folklore, Volume 80, Number 1, Spring 1969, pp. 1-11
Trinacty,
Christopher V.
2018 Lares and Laocoön: A Note on Aen. 2.199-227. [Especially: Figures 1, 2, 3, 4].   Vergilius, Volume 64, 2018, pp. 173-182
Trinquier,
Jean
2008 La fabrique du serpent draco: Quelques serpents mythi-ques chez les poètes latins.   Pallas, Number 78, Mythes et savoirs dans les textes grecs et latins, 2008, pp. 221-255
Troncoso,
Víctor Alonso
2018 The Animal Types on the Argead Coinage, Wilderness and Macedonia. In Howe, Timothy and Frances Pownall, eds., Ancient Macedonians in Greek and Roman Sources: From History to Historiography, 2018, pp. 137-162.   Swansea The Classical Press of Wales
Ullmann,
Manfred, tr., ed.
1994 Das Schlangenbuch des Hermes Trismegistos.   Wiesbaden Harrossowitz Verlag
Vázquez Hoys,
Ana María
1993 La serpiente en las monedas: Transmisión iconográfica de una antigua creencia.   Espacio, Tiempo y Forma, Serie 2, Volume 6, 1993, pp. 59-98
Venit,
Marjorie Susan
1989 Herakles and the Hydra in Athens in the First Half of the Sixth Century B.C. [Especially: Figure 1; Plate 26].   Hesperia: The Journal of the Ame-rican School of Classical Studies at Athens, Volume 58, Number 1, Janu-ary-March 1989, pp. 99-113
Weitzmann,
Kurt
1973 The Heracles Plaques of St. Peter's Cathedra. [Especially: Figures 1, 4, 7, 8, 9, 18, 19, 20, 21, 25, 27, 30, 31, 33, 35, 36, 39, 44, 48, 49, 57].   The Art Bulletin, Volume 55, Number 1, March 1973, pp. 1-37
Same Author 1974 An Addendum to "The Heracles Plaques of St. Peter's Ca-thedra".   The Art Bulletin, Volume 56, Number 2, June 1974, pp. 248-251
Wilk,
Stephen R.
2000 Medusa: Solving the Mystery of the Gorgon.   New York Oxford University Press
Woods,
David
2009 Caesar the Elephant against Juba the Snake. [Especi-ally: Figure 1].   Numismatic Chronicle, Volume 169, 2009, pp. 189-192
Wroth,
Warwick
1882 Asklepios and the Coins of Pergamon. [Especially: Pla-tes I, II, III].   The Numismatic Chronicle and Jour-nal of the Numismatic Society, Third Series, Volume 2, 1882, pp. 1-51
Ziskowski,
Angela
2014 The Bellerophon Myth in Early Corinthian History and Art. [Especially: Figures 4, 5, 7, 9].   Hesperia: The Journal of the Ame-rican School of Classical Studies at Athens, Volume 83, Number 1, Janu-ary-March 2014, pp. 81-102



Seminal
Works

Comparative & General Studies

Greco-Roman World

Ancient & Medieval European Paganism

Anatolia, Levant
& Mesopotamia

Egypt

Biblical
Tradition

Arabia & Early
Islam

Iran, Caucasus & Central Asia

Great Steppe &
Eurasian Nomads

India, Tibet, Sri Lan-ka & Southeast Asia

China, Korea
& Japan

« ● ANCIENT & MEDIEVAL EUROPEAN PAGANISM ● »
Acker,
Paul
2012 Death by Dragons.   Viking and Medieval Scandinavia, Volume 8, 2012, pp. 1-21
Barreiro,
Santiago
1997 The Hoard Makes the Dragon: Fáfnir as a Shapeshifter. In Barreiro, Santiago and Luciana Cordo Russo, eds., Shape-shifters in Medieval North Atlantic Literature, 1997, pp. 53-82.   Amsterdam Amsterdam University Press
Bintley,
Michael D.J. and Thomas J.T. Williams, eds.
2015 Representing Beasts in Early Medieval England and Scandinavia.   Woodbridge The Boydell Press
Bober,
Phyllis Fray
1951 Cernunnos: Origin and Transformation of a Celtic Divinity. [Especially: Figures 3, 4, 13].   American Journal of Archaeology, Volume 55, Number 1, January 1951, pp. 13-51
Bondeson,
Jan
1997 The Bosom Serpent. In Bondeson, Jan, A Cabinet of Medi-cal Curiosities, 1997, pp. 26-50.   Ithaca Cornell University Press
Boyer,
Régis
1997 Héros et dieux du Nord: Guide iconographique.   Paris Flammarion
Brunning,
Sue
2015 "(Swinger of) the Serpent of Wounds": Swords and Snakes in the Viking Mind. In Bintley, Michael D.J. and Tho-mas J.T. Williams, eds., Representing Beasts in Early Medie-val England and Scandinavia, 2015, pp. 53-72.   Woodbridge The Boydell Press
Bryan,
Elizabeth J.
2016 Astronomy Translated: Caput Draconis and the Pendra-gon Star in Geoffrey of Monmouth, Wace, and Lazamon.   Arthuriana, Volume 26, Number 1, Spring 2016, pp. 141-163
Campbell,
John Francis
1911 The Celtic Dragon Myth. With the Geste of Fraoch and the Dragon, translated with introduction by George Hender-son. (2013: Reprint edition: Routledge, Abingdon).   Edinburgh John Grant
Condren,
Mary
1989 The Serpent and the Goddess: Women, Religion, and Power in Celtic Ireland.   San Fran-
cisco
Harper & Row
Cook,
Robert G.
1971 The Character of Gunnlaug Serpent-Tongue.   Scandinavian Studies, Volume 43, Number 1, Winter 1971, pp. 1-21
Crane,
Susan
2013 Animal Encounters: Contacts and Concepts in Medieval Britain. [Especially: Chapter 3: A Bestiary's Taxonomy of Creatures, pp. 69-100].   Philadelphia University of Pennsylvania Press
Davidson,
Hilda Rodrick Ellis
1964 Gods and Myths of Northern Europe. (1968-2009: Re-print editions: Penguin Books, London).   London Penguin Books
Same Author

1982 Viking & Norse Mythology. (1996: Reprint edition: Barnes & Noble, New York).   New York Chancellor Publications
Same Author

1988 Myths and Symbols in Pagan Europe: Early Scandina-vian and Celtic Religions.   Syracuse Syracuse University Press
DuBois,
Arthur E.
1957 The Dragon in Beowulf.   Proceedings of the Modern Language Association of America (PMLA), Vo-lume 72, Number 5, 1957, pp. 819-822
Ettlinger,
Ellen
1976 The Mythological Relief of the Oseberg Wagon Found in Southern Norway. [Especially: Figure 1].   Folklore, Volume 87, Number 1, 1976, pp. 81-88
Evans,
Jonathan D.
2000 The Heynesbók Dragon: An Old Icelandic Maxim in Its Legal-Historical Context. [Especially: Figures 1, 2].   The Journal of English and Germanic Philology, Volume 99, Number 4, Oc-tober 2000, pp. 461-491
Ferris,
William N.
1959 Arthur's Golden Dragon.   Romance Notes, Volume 1, Number 1, November 1959, pp. 69-71
Fitzpatrick,
A.P.
2007 Dancing with Dragons: Fantastic Animals in the Earlier Celtic Art of Iron Age Britain. In Haselgrove, Colin and Tom Moore, eds., The Later Iron Age in Britain and Beyond, 2007, pp. 339-357.   Oxford Oxbow Books
Ginoux,
Nathalie
2008 Pendragon's Ancestors. [Especially: Figures 2, 6].   Proceedings of the Harvard Celtic Col-loquium, Volume 28, 2008, pp. 63-78
Göller,
Karl Heinz
1994 The Dream of the Dragon and Bear. In Göller, Karl Heinz, ed., The Alliterative Morte Arthure: A Reassessment of the Poem, 1994, pp. 130-139.   Woodbridge Boydell & Brewer
Graham-Campbell,
James
2013 Viking Art. [Especially: Figures 1, 3, 7, 10, 13, 15, 16, 17, 28c, 30a, 43, 46, 48, 49, 52, 53, 58, 59 bottom, 67, 68 bottom, 103, 107, 109, 114, 123, 131, 138, 139, 140, 142 right, 151, 152, 153, 154, 155, 156, 161, 162, 163, 164, 165, 166, 167, 168, 169, 170, 172, 173, 174, 175, 177, 178, 179, 185, 194, 195, 196, 199, 200, 202, 203, 207, 208, 210, 212].   London Thames & Hudson
Green,
(Aldhouse-Green)
Miranda Jane
1989 Symbols and Image in Celtic Religious Art. [Especial-ly: Figures 1, 17, 22, 23, 24, 26, 35, 38, 39, 40, 48, 51, 52, 73].   London Routledge
Same Author

1992 Dictionary of Celtic Myth and Legend.   London Thames & Hudson
Same Author

1996 Celtic Art: Reading the Messages.   London Weidenfeld & Nicolson
Same Author

1997 Celtic Art: Symbols & Imagery.   New York Sterling Publishing Company
Same Author 2004 An Archaeology of Images: Iconology and Cosmology in Iron Age and Roman Europe.   London Routledge
Guðmundsdóttir,
Aðalheiður
2012 Gunnarr and the Snake Pit in Medieval Art and Legend. (Translated from the Icelandic by Jeffrey Cosser). [Especially: Figures 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12].   Speculum, Volume 87, Number 4, Oc-tober 2012, pp. 1015-1049
Hubert,
Jean, Jean Porcher,
and Wolfgang
Friedrich Volbach
1967 L'Europe des invasions. (L'univers des formes. Tome XII). [For the selection of relevant figures see the English edition, 1969].   Paris Éditions Gallimard
Same Authors 1969 Europe of the Dark Ages. (The Arts of Mankind. Volume XII). (1961, French; Translated by Stuart Gilbert and James Emmons). [Especially: Figures 55, 56, 68, 70, 113, 116, 119B, 130, 204, 205].   London Thames & Hudson
Jensen,
Bo
2017 Skull-Cups and Snake-Pits: Men's Revenge and Women's Revenge in Viking Age Scandinavia. In Jensen, Bo and Uros Matic, eds., Archaeologies of Gender and Violence, 2017, pp. 197-222.   Oxford Oxbow Books
Karwowski,
Maciej
2014 The Dragon from Oberleiserberg. In Gosden, Chris-topher et al., eds., Celtic Art in Europe: Making Connections, 2014, pp. 234-238.   Oxford Oxbow Books
Kilger,
Christoph
2015 Hoards and Sinuous Snakes: Significance and Meaning of Ring Ornaments in Early Viking Age Hoards from Got-land. In Larsson, Lars et al., eds., Small Things - Wide Hori-zons: Studies in Honour of Birgitta Hårdh, 2015, pp. 35-42.   Oxford Archaeopress
Lindow,
John
2001 Norse Mythology: A Guide to the Gods, Heroes, Rituals, and Beliefs. (2002: Reprint edition: Oxford University Press, Oxford). [Especially: Figures on pp. 4, 8, 9, 60, 184, 187, 190, 217, 218, 229, 230, 255, 276].   Santa
Barbara
ABC-CLIO
Malcor,
Linda A.
2000 Merlin and the Pendragon: King Arthur's Draconarius. [Especially: Figures 1, 2, 4].   Arthuriana, Volume 10, Number 1, Spring 2000, pp. 3-13
Mederos,
Judith E.
1963 Influence of Barbarian Art on Romanesque Art. [Es-pecially: Figure 1].   Gesta, Pre-Serial Issue. Annual of the International Center of Romanesque Art Inc., 1963, pp. 4-7
Megaw,
Ruth and Vincent Megaw
1989 The Italian Job: Some Implications of Recent Finds of Cel-tic Scabbards Decorated with Dragon-Pairs. [Especially: Il-lustration 1].   Mediterranean Archaeology, Volume 2, 1989, pp. 85-100
Nikolaeva,
Tat'yana Vasil'evna and Aleksey Vladimirovich Chernetsov
1991 Древнерусские амулеты-змеевики. (Ancient Russian Zmeevik-Talismans).   Moscow Nauka
Nilsson,
Martin P.
1947 The Dragon on the Treasure.   The American Journal of Philology, Volume 68, Number 3, 1947, pp. 302-309
Rasmussen,
Ann Marie
2011 Siegfried the Dragonslayer Meets the Web: Using Di-gital Media for Developing Historical Awareness and Ad-vanced Language and Critical Thinking Skills.   Die Unterrichtspraxis/Teaching Ger-man, Volume 44, Number 2, Fall 2011, pp. 106-115
Rauer,
Christine
2000 Beowulf and the Dragon: Parallels and Analogues.   Cambridge D.S. Brewer
Sayers,
William
2008 The Wyvern.   Neuphilologische Mitteilungen, Volu-me 109, Number 4, 2008, pp. 457-465
Simpson,
Jacqueline
1978 Fifty British Dragon Tales: An Analysis.   Folklore, Volume 89, Number 1, 1978, pp. 79-93
Same Author

1980 British Dragons.   London B.T. Batsford
Sutton,
Anne F. and Livia Visser-Fuchs
1992 The Dark Dragon of the Normans: A Creation of Geof-frey of Monmouth, Stephen of Rouen, and Merlin Silvester.   Quondam et Futurus, Volume 2, Num-ber 2, Summer 1992, pp. 1-19
Symons,
Victoria
2015 Wreoþenhilt ond Wyrmfah: Confronting Serpents in "Beowulf" and Beyond. In Bintley, Michael D.J. and Thomas J.T. Williams, eds., Representing Beasts in Early Medieval England and Scandinavia, 2015, pp. 73-93.   Woodbridge The Boydell Press
Talbot,
Annelise
1983 Sigemund the Dragon-Slayer.   Folklore, Volume 94, Number 2, 1983, pp. 153-162
Tatlock,
J.S.P.
1933 The Dragons of Wessex and Wales.   Speculum, Volume 8, Number 2, April 1933, pp. 223-235
Trygstad,
Anne
1985 The Järsta Stone. [Especially: Figure 1].   Proceedings of the Modern Language Association of America (PMLA), Vo-lume 100, Number 1, January 1985, pp. 9-1
Vaz da Silva,
Francisco
2003 Iberian Seventh-Born Children, Werewolves, and the Dragon Slayer: A Case Study in the Comparative Interpretation of Symbolic Praxis and Fairytales.   Folklore, Volume 114, Number 3, De-cember 2003, pp. 335-353
Vitali,
Daniele
2007 The Celts: History and Treasures of an Ancient Civilization. [Especially: Figures on pp. 6-7, 28, 46, 47, 71 top right, 91, 102, 123, 124, 183 top, 183 bottom, 184, 186 bottom]. Vercelli White Star



Seminal
Works

Comparative & General Studies

Greco-Roman World

Ancient & Medieval European Paganism

Anatolia, Levant
& Mesopotamia

Egypt

Biblical
Tradition

Arabia & Early
Islam

Iran, Caucasus & Central Asia

Great Steppe &
Eurasian Nomads

India, Tibet, Sri Lan-ka & Southeast Asia

China, Korea
& Japan

« ● ANATOLIA, LEVANT & MESOPOTAMIA ● »
Acquaro,
Enrico and Paola
de Vita
2010 The Phoenicians: History and Treasures of an Ancient Ci-vilization. [Especially: Figures on pp. 32, 42-43, 43 top left, 46, 50, 51 left, 51 right, 52 left, 53, 57, 65 left, 68, 126, 152].   Vercelli White Star
Binst,
Olivier, ed.
2000 The Levant: History and Archaeology in the Eastern Medi-terranean. [Especially: Figures on pp. 38 right, 41, 55, 58, 66, 103 bottom, 181 bottom, 211, 214 top, 234].   Cologne Könemann
Black,
Jeremy and Anthony Green
1992 Gods, Demons and Symbols of Ancient Mesopota-mia: An Illustrated Dictionary. [Especially: Articles Aššur, Beasts of the Gods, Demons and Monsters, Dragons, Etana, Gilgameš, Huwawa (Humbaba), Iškur (Adad), Ištaran, Kudurrus, Lamaštu, Lion-Dragon, Marduk, Merman and Mermaid, Mongoose, Nabû, Ninazu, Ningišzida, Plant of Life, Slain Heroes, Snake-Dragon, Snake Gods, Snakes, Tiāmat, Tiāmat's Creatures, Tišpak, Turtle, Underworld, Winged Disc, Ziusura (Ūt-napišti), Zodiac; Figures 7, 8, 31, 36, 45, 53, 76, 89, 90, 100, 105, 107, 108, 110, 115, 135, 137, 138, 139, 150, 151, 159].   Austin University of Texas Press
Borowski,
Oded
2002 Animals in the Literatures of Syria-Palestine. In Col-lins, Billie Jean, ed., A History of the Animal World in the Ancient Near East, 2002, pp. 289-308.   Leiden Brill
Same Author 2002 Animals in the Religions of Syria-Palestine. In Collins, Billie Jean, ed., A History of the Animal World in the Ancient Near East, 2002, pp. 405-426. [Especially: Figure 15.3].   Leiden Brill
Bourbon,
Fabio and Enrico Lavagno
2001 The Holy Land: Guide to the Archaeological Sites and His-torical Monuments. [Especially: Figures on pp. 9 left, 15, 112-113, 153 bottom right, 161 bottom left, 182-183].   Vercelli White Star
Breniquet,
Catherine
2002 Animals in Mesopotamian Art. In Collins, Billie Jean, ed., A History of the Animal World in the Ancient Near East, 2002, pp. 145-168. [Especially: Figure 4.5].   Leiden Brill
Buchanan,
Briggs
1971 A Snake Goddess and Her Companions: A Problem in the Iconography of the Early Second Millennium B.C. [Espe-cially: Figure 1].   Iraq, Volume 33, Number 1, Spring 1971, pp. 1-18
Caubet,
Annie
2002 Animals in Syro-Palestinian Art. In Collins, Billie Jean, ed., A History of the Animal World in the Ancient Near East, 2002, pp. 211-236.   Leiden Brill
Collins,
Billie Jean, ed.
2002 A History of the Animal World in the Ancient Near East.   Leiden Brill
Same Author 2002 Animals in Hittite Literature. In Collins, Billie Jean, ed., A History of the Animal World in the Ancient Near East, 2002, pp. 237-250.   Leiden Brill
Same Author 2002 Animals in the Religions of Ancient Anatolia. In Col-lins, Billie Jean, ed., A History of the Animal World in the An-cient Near East, 2002, pp. 309-334. [Especially: Figure 11.3].   Leiden Brill
Cornelius,
Izak
1994 The Iconography of the Canaanite Gods Reshef and Ba'al: Late Bronze and Iron Age I Periods (c. 1500-1000 BCE). [Especially: Plates 20 (RR28), 21 (RR29), 22 (RR30), 23 (RR31), 26 (RR36), 27 (RM3), 28 (RM10, RM12, RM13), 36 (BR6), 42 (BR16), 47 (BM17, BM24, BM26, BM27, BM28, BM29, BM30, BM31, BM32, BM33, BM34, BM35, BM36, BM37, BM40), 50 (BM74, BM75, BM76, BM77, BM78, BM79, BM80, BM81, BM82), 51 (BM83, BM84, BM86), A, C; Figures 4, 5, 7, 9, 30, 31, 36b, 39, 42, 48, 49a, 50, 51, 52, 53, 54, 61, 62, 63].   Fribourg University Press
Foster,
Benjamin R.
2002 Animals in Mesopotamian Literature. In Collins, Billie Jean, ed., A History of the Animal World in the Ancient Near East, 2002, pp. 271-288.   Leiden Brill
Frankfort,
Henri
1934 Gods and Myths on Sargonid Seals. [Especially: Plates I, II, III, IV, V; Figures 1, 2, 3].   Iraq, Volume 1, Number 1, April 1934, pp. 2-29
Same Author 1954 The Art and Architecture of the Ancient Orient. (1958-1970: Second-fourth editions: Yale University Press, New Ha-ven; 1996: Fifth edition: Yale University Press, New Haven). [Especially: Figures 25B, 25D, 28, 32, 33, 96B, 101, 102, 125, 229, 233, 391, 392, 427].   New Haven Yale University Press
Goff,
Beatrice Laura
1963 Symbols of Prehistoric Mesopotamia. [Especially: Fi-gures 76, 78, 277, 278, 388, 539, 541, 699, 703, 718].   New Haven Yale University Press
Gunter,
Ann C.
2002 Animals in Anatolian Art. In Collins, Billie Jean, ed., A History of the Animal World in the Ancient Near East, 2002, pp. 79-96.   Leiden Brill
Jacobsen,
Thorkild
1968 The Battle between Marduk and Tiamat.   Journal of the American Oriental So-ciety, Volume 88, Number 1, January-March 1968, pp. 104-108
Kaplan,
Maureen F.
1976 Another Slaying of Tiamat?   Israel Exploration Journal, Volume 26, Number 4, 1976, pp. 174-177
Koh,
Sejin
1994 An Archaeological Investigation of the Snake Cult in the Southern Levant: The Chalcolithic Period through the Iron Age. PhD Dissertation.   Chicago University of Chicago
Leick,
Gwendolyn
1991 A Dictionary of Ancient Near Eastern Mythology. (1996-1998: Reprint editions: Routledge, London).   London Routledge
McDonald,
Diana Krumholz
1994 The Serpent as Healer: Theriac and Ancient Near Eastern Pottery. [Especially: Figure 1].   Source: Notes in the History of Art, Volume 13, Number 4, Essays for Dr. Edith Porada, Summer 1994, pp. 21-27
Münnich,
Maciej
2005 The Cult of Bronze Serpents in Ancient Canaan and Israel. In Iggud: Selected Essays in Jewish Studies, 2005, pp. 39-56. [Especially: Figures 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 15, 16].   Jerusalem The World Union
of Jewish Studies
Ornan,
Tallay
2005 The Triumph of the Symbol: Pictorial Representation of Deities in Mesopotamia and the Biblical Image Ban.   Fribourg Academic Press
Pancaroğlu,
Oya
2004 The Itinerant Dragon-Slayer: Forging Paths of Image and Identity in Medieval Anatolia. [Especially: Figures 1, 2, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12; Plate 2].   Gesta, Volume 43, Number 2, 2004, pp. 151-164
Parrot,
André
1960 Sumer. (L'univers des formes. Tome I). [For the selection of relevant figures see the English edition, 1961].   Paris Éditions Gallimard
Same Author 1961 Assur. (L'univers des formes. Tome II). [For the selection of relevant figures see the English edition, 1961].   Paris Éditions Gallimard
Same Author 1961 Sumer: The Dawn of Art. (The Arts of Mankind. Volume I). (1960, French; Translated by Stuart Gilbert and James Em-mons). [Especially: Figures 10, 11, 52, 53, 98A, 98B, 168B, 168C, 168D, 284, 289, 290, 369, 370, 373, 388, 395B, 395D, 401, 416].   New York Golden Press
Same Author 1961 The Arts of Assyria. (The Arts of Mankind. Volume II). (1961, French; Translated by Stuart Gilbert and James Em-mons). [Especially: Figures 48, 91, 188, 216, 221B, 222, 230, 241].   New York Golden Press
Renz,
Barbara
1930 Der orientalische Schlangendrache: Ein Beitrag zum Verständnis der Schlange im biblischen Paradies.   Augsburg Verlag Literarisches Institut Von Haas & Grabherr
Rizza,
Alfredo
2007 The Assyrians and the Babylonians: History and Trea-sures of an Ancient Civilization. [Especially: Figures on pp. 6-7, 27, 43 center, 102 right, 103 left, 103 right, 105, 136 bottom, 172-173].   Vercelli White Star
Scurlock,
JoAnn
2002 Animals in Ancient Mesopotamian Religion. In Col-lins, Billie Jean, ed., A History of the Animal World in the Ancient Near East, 2002, pp. 361-388.   Leiden Brill
Stevens,
Karel
1984 De iconografie van de slang in Mesopotamië vanaf het vijfde millenium voor Christus tot het einde van de Akka-dische periode. Magisterarbeit. Volumes I-II.   Königstein Ulrike Helmer Verlag
Tesei
Tommaso
2010 Survival and Christianization of the Gilgamesh Quest for Immortality in the Tale of Alexander and the Fountain of Life.   Rivista degli Studi Orientali, Nuova Serie, Volume 83, Fascicle 1/4, 2010, pp. 417-440
Van Buren,
Elizabeth Douglas
1934 The God Ningizzida. [Especially: Figure 1; Plates IX, X, XI].   Iraq, Volume 10, Number 1, April 1934, pp. 60-89
Same Author 1935 Entwined Serpents. [Especially: Figures 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12].   Archiv für Orientforschung, Volume 10, 1935, pp. 53-65
Same Author 1937 The Scorpion in Mesopotamian Art and Religion. [Especially: Figures 8, 10, 11, 20, 22].   Archiv für Orientforschung, Volume 12, 1937, pp. 1-28
Same Author 1939 The Fauna of Ancient Mesopotamia as Represented in Art.   Rome Pontificium Institutum Biblicum
Same Author 1945 Symbols of Gods in Mesopotamian Art.   Rome Pontificium Institutum Biblicum
Same Author 1946 The Dragon in Ancient Mesopotamia. [Especially: Pla-tes I, II, III, IV, V, VI, VII, VIII].   Orientalia, Nova Series, Volume 15, 1946, pp. 1-45
Same Author 1947 A Further Note on the Dragon in Ancient Mesopotamia. [Especially: Plate IX].   Orientalia, Nova Series, Volume 16, Number 2, 1947, pp. 251-253
Same Author 1955 How Representations of Battles of the Gods Developed.   Orientalia, Nova Series, Volume 24, Number 1, 1955, pp. 24-41
Ward,
William Hayes
1898 Bel and the Dragon. [Especially: Figures 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 18].   The American Journal of Semitic Lan-guages and Literatures, Volume 14, Number 2, January 1898, pp. 94-105
Winitzer,
Abraham
2013 Etana in Eden: New Light on the Mesopotamian and Bibli-cal Tales in Their Semitic Context.   Journal of the American Oriental So-ciety, Volume 133, Number 3, July-September 2013, pp. 441-465



Seminal
Works

Comparative & General Studies

Greco-Roman World

Ancient & Medieval European Paganism

Anatolia, Levant
& Mesopotamia

Egypt

Biblical
Tradition

Arabia & Early
Islam

Iran, Caucasus & Central Asia

Great Steppe &
Eurasian Nomads

India, Tibet, Sri Lan-ka & Southeast Asia

China, Korea
& Japan

« ● EGYPT ● »
Boutantin,
Céline
2013 Terres cuites et culte domestique: Bestiaire de l’Égypte gréco-romaine.   Leiden Brill
Broekhuis,
Jan
1971 De godin Renenwetet.   Assen Van Gorcum
Budge,
E.A. Wallis
1895 The Egyptian Book of the Dead: The Papyrus of Ani in the British Museum. The Egyptian Text with Interlinear Transliteration and Translation, a Running Translation, In-troduction, etc. (1967-2018: Reprint editions: Dover Publica-tions, New York). [Especially: Figures on pp. 248, 253.1, 256.1, 260, 264.1, 266.6, 277.2, 280].   London Trustees of the British Museum
Germond,
Philippe and Jacques Livet
2001 Bestiaire égyptien.   Paris Éditions Citadelles et Mazenod
Same Authors 2001 An Egyptian Bestiary: Animals in Life and Religion in the Land of the Pharaohs. (2001, French; Translated by Barbara Mellor).   London Thames & Hudson
Griffiths,
J. Gwyn
1961 The Death of Cleopatra VII. [Especially: Plate IX].   The Journal of Egyptian Archaeology, Volume 47, December 1961, pp. 113-118
Hagen,
Rose-Marie and Rainer Hagen
1999 Egypt: People · Gods · Pharaohs. [Especially: Figures on pp. 8-9, 21 top, 21 bottom, 22 top, 26, 27, 37, 38, 40, 42 top, 43, 44 right, 45, 46, 47, 49, 50, 51 bottom, 52, 59 bottom, 66, 69 top, 70, 85, 91 top, 108, 140 top, 140 bottom, 145 top, 153, 161, 162 bottom, 166 bottom right, 169, 171, 172, 174 top, 174 bottom, 175, 177, 178 left, 180, 181 right, 185 top, 185 bottom, 186 top, 186 bottom, 187 bottom, 189, 197 top, 197 bottom, 200 top left, 200 top right, 201 top, 200 top, 203, 205 top, 206 right, 227].   Cologne Taschen
Hardwick,
Tom
2009 The Roman Uraeus. [Especially: Figures 1, 2].   The Journal of Egyptian Archaeology, Volume 95, 2009, pp. 254-257
Hopfner,
Theodor
1913 Der Tierkult der alten Ägypter nach den griechisch-römischen Berichten und den wichtigeren Denkmälern.   Wien Denkschriften der Kaiserlichen Akademie der Wissenschaften
Houlihan,
Patrick F.
1996 The Animal World of the Pharaohs.   London Thames & Hudson
Same Author 2002 Animals in Egyptian Art and Hieroglyphs. In Collins, Billie Jean, ed., A History of the Animal World in the Ancient Near East, 2002, pp. 97-144. [Especially: Figures 3.1, 3.9].   Leiden Brill
Johnson,
Sally Barber
1990 The Cobra Goddess of Ancient Egypt: Predynastic, Ear-ly Dynastic, and Old Kingdom Periods.   London Kegan Paul International
Keimer,
Ludwig (Louis)
1947 Histoires de serpents dans l'Égypte ancienne et mo-derne.   Cairo Institut français d'archéologie orientale
Kerkeslager,
Allen
2001 The Apophis Snake on a Coin of Domitian from Ale-xandria (BMC Alexandria 348; RPC 2, 2756). [Especially: Plate 51].   The Numismatic Chronicle, Volume 161, 2001, pp. 287-290
Leitz,
Christian
1997 Die Schlangennamen in den ägyptischen und grie-chischen Giftbüchern.   Stuttgart Franz Steiner Verlag
Lurker,
Manfred
1964 Symbole der alten Ägypter: Einführung und kleines Wörterbuch.   Weilheim Otto Wilhelm Barth Verlag
Same Author 1974 Lexikon der Götter und Symbole der alten Ägypter: Handbuch der mystischen und magischen Welt Ägyptens.   Weilheim Otto Wilhelm Barth Verlag
Same Author 1980 An Illustrated Dictionary of the Gods and Symbols of Ancient Egypt. (1974, German; Translated by Barbara Cummmings). [Especially: Articles Animal, Apophis, Cat, Crocodile, Crowns, Darkness, Eye, Frog, Ichneumon, Mert-seger, Nekhbet, Renenutet, Rope, Serpent, Snake, Solar Eye, Spiral, Suchos, Uraeus, Wadjet, Wedjat-Eye, Winged Disc; Figures on pp. 17, 24 top, 27, 29, 30, 38 top, 38 bottom, 43 bottom, 44, 47 bottom, 49, 60, 61 bottom, 65, 67, 71, 78 top, 86, 105 bottom, 108, 109, 111, 117, 125, 126].   London Thames & Hudson
Malek,
Jaromir
2003 Egypt: 4000 Years of Art. [Especially: Figures on pp. 30, 32, 33, 36, 43, 60-61, 74, 89, 96, 105, 106, 113, 120, 121, 126, 136, 138, 141, 142-143, 156-157, 161, 175, 176, 178, 179, 190, 193, 195, 198-199, 200-201, 203, 204, 206, 207, 214, 220, 225, 230, 234, 235, 236, 238-239, 245, 259, 260, 265, 267, 272-273, 274, 275, 277, 278, 281, 283, 292, 296, 307, 309, 330, 334, 344, 352, 353, 356].   London Phaidon Press
Michalowski,
Kazimierz
1968 Art of Ancient Egypt. (Translated and adapted from the Polish and French by Norbert Guterman). [Especially: Figures 14, 15a, 30, 35, 38, 41, 42, 51, 68, 69, 84, 90, 91, 94, 100, 101, 103, 104, 106, 107, 115, 117, 121, 126, 127, 132, 134, 136, 177, 178, 179, 196, 234, 256, 267, 270, 275, 304, 309, 311, 314, 315, 333, 334, 335, 336, 338, 340, 345, 351, 363, 368, 370, 371, 373, 385, 386, 391, 392, 415, 440, 443, 445, 447, 450, 454, 460, 465, 471, 472, 474, 475, 476, 477, 482, 484, 502, 504, 505, 512, 513, 515, 518, 529, 541, 542, 544, 546, 548, 549, 550, 553, 556, 557, 558, 559, 581, 603, 605, 606, 611, 612, 615, 617, 618, 621, 623, 641, 642, 645, 650, 651, 652, 654, 655, 656, 657, 659, 660, 661, 662, 663, 664, 665, 669, 670, 672, 673, 674, 678, 680, 681, 682, 684, 689, 691, 718, 724, 744, 745, 749, 750, 751, 790, 791, 794, 795, 796, 827, 940; Charts II, III, IV, V].   New York Harry N. Abrams
Ritner,
Robert K.
2006 "And Each Staff Transformed into a Snake": The Ser-pent Wand in Ancient Egypt. In Szpakowska, Kasia, ed., Through a Glass Darkly: Magic, Dreams and Prophecy in Ancient Egypt, 2006, pp. 205-226.   Swansea The Classical Press
of Wales
Roblee,
Mark
2018 Performing Circles in Ancient Egypt from Mehen to Ouroboros.   Preternature: Critical and Historical Studies on the Preternatural, Volume 7, Number 2, 2018, pp. 133-153
Schulz,
Regine and Matthias Seidel, eds.
2004 Egypt: The World of the Pharaohs. [Especially: Frontispiece; Figures 13 on p. 15, 34 on p. 27, 38 on p. 29, 50 on p. 34, 3 on p. 42, 13 on p. 49, 60 on p. 74, 61 on p. 75, 66 on p. 77, 76 on p. 83, 84 on p. 88, 3 on p. 106, 4 on p. 106, 6 on p. 107, 10 on p. 110, 11 on pp. 110-111, 14 on p. 112, 23 on p. 117, 55 on p. 132, 56 on p. 134, 57 on p. 134, 60 on p. 136, 62 on p. 138, 65 on p. 140, 1 on p. 142, 3 on p. 144, 4 on p. 145, 5 on p. 147, 7 on p. 148, 9 on p. 150, 10 on p. 151, 21 on p. 159, 27 on p. 163, 30 on p. 164, 38 on p. 168, 39 on p. 169, 40 on p. 169, 41 on p. 169, 44 on p. 170, 46 on p. 172, 47 on p. 173, 51 on p. 174, 52 on p. 174, 58 on p. 177, 59 on p. 177, 60 on p. 178, 64 on p. 180, 65 on p. 181, 71 on p. 185, 73 on p. 186, 79 on p. 189, 80 on p. 191, 87 on p. 194, 91 on p. 196, 101 on p. 201, 104 on p. 203, 107 on p. 205, 109 on p. 206, 112 on p. 207, 117 on p. 209, 118 on p. 209, 119 on p. 210, 124 on p. 212, 125 on p. 213, 127 on p. 214, 128 on p. 215, 130 on p. 215, 134 on p. 218, 138 on p. 221, 139 on p. 221, 140 on p. 222, 141 on p. 223, 142 on p. 223, 143 on pp. 224-225, 144 on p. 226, 149 on p. 228, 150 on p. 228, 155 on p. 230, 158 on p. 232, 159 on p. 232, 160 on p. 232, 162 on p. 233, 163 on p. 233, 164 on p. 234, 169 on p. 237, 172 on p. 238, 177 on p. 239, 179 on p. 240, 180 on p. 241, 181 on p. 241, 184 on p. 242, 188 on p. 245, 190 on p. 245, 192 on p. 247, 193 on p. 247, 206 on p. 255, 226 on p. 263, 1 on p. 270, 3 on p. 272, 5 on p. 274, 6 on p. 275, 7 on p. 276, 9 on p. 278, 12 on p. 279, 14 on p. 280, 23 on p. 284, 26 on p. 286, 28 on p. 287, 35 on p. 289, 36 on p. 289, 4 on p. 294, 5 on p. 294, 12 on p. 300, 14 on p. 301, 20 on p. 303, 24 on p. 304, 29 on p. 305, 30 on p. 306, 31 on p. 306, 32 on p. 307, 45 on p. 313, 46 on p. 313, 60 on p. 319, 1 on p. 322, 2 on p. 323, 4 on p. 325, 5 on p. 326, 6 on p. 327, 7 on p. 328, 8 on p. 329, 12 on p. 332, 19 on p. 336, 21 on p. 337, 25 on p. 338, 36 on p. 347, 44 on pp. 350-351, 114 on p. 395, 9 on p. 422, 13 on p. 424, 18 on p. 428, 19 on p. 428, 20 on p. 429, 21 on p. 430, 23 on p. 432, 25 on p. 434, 27 on p. 436, 30 on p. 437, 31 on p. 438, 36 on p. 441, 38 on p. 442, 42 on pp. 446-447, 46 on p. 450, 48 on p. 452, 52 on p. 454, 58 on p. 457, 71 on p. 466, 99 on p. 476, 100 on p. 476, 101 on p. 476, 102 on p. 477, 120 on p. 489].   Königs-
winter
Könemann
Shorter,
Alan W.
1935 The God Nehebkau. [Especially: Figures 1, 2, 3].   The Journal of Egyptian Archaeology, Volume 21, Number 1, September 1935, pp. 41-48
Smith,
W. Stevenson
1958 The Art and Architecture of Ancient Egypt. (1981-1998: Revised editions: Yale University Press, New Haven). [Especially: Figures 14, 17, 36, 43, 49, 50, 82, 93, 112, 113, 160, 179, 181, 203, 204, 222, 231, 256, 257, 261, 269, 270, 288.b, 203, 204, 301, 302, 316, 324, 325, 326, 336, 338, 339, 340, 345, 346, 352, 361, 367, 372, 373, 391, 392, 409, 410, 415].   Harmonds-
worth
Penguin Books
Teeter,
Emily
2002 Animals in Egyptian Literature. In Collins, Billie Jean, ed., A History of the Animal World in the Ancient Near East, 2002, pp. 251-270.   Leiden Brill
Same Author 2002 Animals in Egyptian Religion. In Collins, Billie Jean, ed., A History of the Animal World in the Ancient Near East, 2002, pp. 335-360. [Especially: Table 12.1; Figures 12.1, 12.2, 12.5, 12.6, 12.7, 12.8].   Leiden Brill
Tiradritti,
Francesco
2008 Egyptian Wall Painting. (Translated from the Italian by Marguerite Shore). [Especially: Figures on pp. 15 right, 23, 28, 34-35, 38, 46-47, 48, 66, 67, 74, 82, 96, 165-165, 176 bottom, 197, 210-211, 212-213, 227, 234-235, 236, 237, 258-259, 266-267, 268-269, 270, 271, 272, 274, 275, 281, 286-287, 288, 289, 290, 291, 292-293, 294-295, 296, 305, 306-307, 310, 312-313, 314-315, 316-317, 318-319, 343, 344, 346, 348, 353, 358-359, 360, 361, 362-363, 364-365, 369, 373].   New York Abbeville Press
Wasserman,
James et al.
1994 The Egyptian Book of the Dead: The Book of Going Forth by Day. The Complete Papyrus of Ani Featuring Integ-rated Text and Full-Color Images. (1998: Second revised edition: Chronicle Books, San Francisco). [Especially: Plates 4, 9, 10, 11, 18, 19, 27, 30, 31, 32, 34, 35, 36].   San Fran-
cisco
Chronicle Books
Weeks,
Kent R., ed.
2001 The Treasures of the Valley of the Kings: Tombs and Temples of the Theban West Bank in Luxor. [Especially: Figu-res on p. 7, 8, 10, 12-17, 20-21, 31, 42 bottom, 42-43, 44 left, 56 bottom left, 62 bottom left, 62 bottom right, 65, 68-69, 74 top left, 75, 76 top, 83, 87, 90 bottom, 93, 94-95, 95 center, 101, 106, 108-109, 113, 118-119, 124 top, 124-125, 126-127, 127 bottom, 130-131, 136-137, 137 right, 138-139, 139 bottom, 140 left, 141 top, 142 top, 142 bottom, 142-143, 143 bottom left, 144 top, 144 bottom, 144-145, 146-147, 148-149, 149 top, 151-153, 154, 155, 156 bottom, 156-157, 158 right, 159, 160-161, 161 bottom, 162 bottom, 162-163, 172 bottom, 172-173, 176-177, 177 bottom, 178, 180-181, 181 bottom, 182, 183-186, 190, 191, 192 top, 192 bottom, 192-193, 193 bottom, 194, 196 top, 197 bottom, 198 bottom, 198-199, 200-201, 202 top, 202 bottom, 202-203, 206 top, 206 bottom, 207 top, 208-209, 211, 213 top, 213 bottom, 214 top, 217 top right, 218 top left, 219, 222 left, 223, 224-225, 226-227, 227 top left, 227 top right, 228-229, 229 bottom, 230, 230-231, 232-233, 233, 234 top, 236 left, 236 top, 236 right, 237, 239 bottom, 240 bottom, 244-245, 245 bottom right, 246, 247-250, 251, 252 top, 253 bottom, 255 top right, 256, 256-257, 257 bottom left, 257 bottom right, 259 bottom, 260 top, 261 bottom, 262-264, 266 bottom, 268 bottom, 268-269, 275, 277, 282 left, 290-291, 292-293, 294-295, 298-299, 300, 302-304, 306-307, 308 bottom, 308-309, 311, 312, 313, 314, 314-315, 316, 316-317, 318 bottom left, 318 bottom right, 318-319, 319 bottom, 320-321, 322 top, 323 bottom, 327 bottom, 329 bottom right, 331 bottom, 332 top, 332 bottom, 333 bottom, 335 bottom, 344-345, 348-349, 350-351, 357, 361 bottom, 390-391, 406-407, 419].   Cairo The American University in
Cairo Press
West,
John Anthony
1993 Serpent in the Sky: The High Wisdom of Ancient Egypt.   Wheaton Quest Books
Wilkinson,
Richard H.
2003 The Complete Gods and Goddesses of Ancient Egypt. [Especially: Chapter V: The Catalogue of Deities, Part 7: Rep-tile, Amphibian and Fish Deities, pp. 218-229; Frontispiece; Figures on pp. 6-7, 10-11, 13 bottom left, 14 left, 20, 21 left, 25 right, 26 bottom, 27 bottom left, 27 bottom right, 28 top, 30-31, 31, 33, 34 top, 34 bottom, 36, 37 top, 38 bottom, 42 bottom right, 43 bottom, 44 top, 47 right, 48 top, 51 right, 52-53, 55 bottom, 56, 57 left, 57 right, 60, 62-63, 63, 66-67, 67, 68-69, 74, 74-75, 75 top, 75 bottom, 76 bottom right, 79 bottom, 80, 83 bottom, 84-85, 89 bottom, 91 top, 93, 95, 96, 99 top, 99 bottom, 100 left, 105, 107, 108-109, 109 bottom left, 109 bottom right, 112 top, 113, 115 left, 117, 118, 119, 120, 121 top left, 121 top right, 123 bottom, 125 top, 128 bottom, 132 left, 133 left, 134, 135 bottom, 140, 141 right, 142, 143, 144, 145, 146, 148, 151 left, 152, 153 bottom, 154, 155 bottom, 160 left, 162-163, 163, 171 top, 173, 175 top, 176 bottom, 177 top left, 177 top middle, 177 top right, 179 botttom left, 177 bottom right, 182 top, 183, 184, 191 bottom left, 191 bottom right, 197, 199, 201 left, 202 bottom left, 203, 204, 205, 206-207, 207 top right, 208 bottom, 210 top, 211 top, 212 left, 213 bottom, 214 top right, 214 bottom, 218 top left, 218 top right, 219, 230 top, 230 bottom left, 220 bottom right, 221, 222, 223, 224, 225 left, 225 right, 226, 227 left, 227 right, 228, 229 bottom left, 229 bottom right, 236-237, 238, 239].   London Thames & Hudson
Zimmermann,
Friedrich
1912 Der ägyptische Tierkult nach der Darstellung der Kir-chenschriftsteller und die ägyptischen Denkmäler. Inaugu-ral-Dissertation.   Kirchhain-Niederlau-sitz Max Schmersow



Seminal
Works

Comparative & General Studies

Greco-Roman World

Ancient & Medieval European Paganism

Anatolia, Levant
& Mesopotamia

Egypt

Biblical
Tradition

Arabia & Early
Islam

Iran, Caucasus & Central Asia

Great Steppe &
Eurasian Nomads

India, Tibet, Sri Lan-ka & Southeast Asia

China, Korea
& Japan

« ● BIBLICAL TRADITION ● »
Angel,
Andrew R.
2006 Chaos and the Son of Man: The Hebrew Chaoskampf Tradition in the Period 515 BCE to 200 CE.   London T&T Clark
Same Author 2014 Playing with Dragons: Living with Suffering and God.   Eugene Wipf & Stock Publishers
Anonymous

1972 Fauna and Flora of the Bible.   London United Bible Societies
Ansell,
Nicholas
2017 "Fantastic Beasts and Where to Find The(ir Wis-do)m". Behemoth and Leviathan in the Book of Job. In van Bekkum, Koert et al., eds., Playing with Leviathan: Inter-pretation and Reception of Monsters from the Biblical World, 2017, pp. 90-116.   Leiden Brill
Athnos,
Gregory S.
2011 The Art of the Roman Catacombs: Themes of Deliveran-ce in the Age of Persecution. [Especially: Figures 8, 19, 20, 25, 26, 27, 34].   Parker Outskirts Press
Ballentine,
Debra Scoggins
2015 The Conflict Myth and the Biblical Tradition.   New York Oxford University Press
Baruffa,
Antonio
1993 The Catacombs of St. Callixtus: History - Archaeology - Faith. (Translated from the Italian by William Purdy; 2000: Second edition: Libreria Editrice Vaticana, Vatican City; 2006: Third edition: Libreria Editrice Vaticana, Vatican City). [Especially: Figures on pp. 82 top, 82 bottom, 124 bottom].   Vatican
City
Libreria Editrice Vaticana
Beck,
John A., ed.
2011 Zondervan Dictionary of Biblical Imagery. [Especially: Article Snake (Serpent, Viper)].   Grand
Rapids
HarperCollins Publishers
Beckwith,
John
1970 Early Christian and Byzantine Art. (1979: Second editi-on: Yale University Press, New Haven). [Especially: Figures 7, 10, 11, 27, 28, 35, 39, 41, 192, 195, 259].   Harmonds-
worth
Penguin Books
Bergmann,
Claudia
2004 The Ability/Inability to Eat: Determining Life and Death in Bel et Draco.   Journal for the Study of Judaism in the Persian, Hellenistic, and Roman Period, Volume 35, Number 3, 2004, pp. 262-283
Bloch-Smith,
Elizabeth
2014 Acculturating Gender Roles: Goddess Images as Con-veyors of Culture in Ancient Israel. In de Hulster, Izaak J. and Joel M. LeMon, eds., Image, Text, Exegesis: Iconogra-phic Interpretation and the Hebrew Bible, 2014, pp. 1-18.   London Bloomsbury
T&T Clark
Bodenheimer,
Friedrich Simon
1960, 1972 Animal and Man in Bible Lands. Volumes I-II.   Leiden Brill
Bonfiglio,
Ryan P.
2015 Divine Warrior or Persian King? The Archer Metaphor in Zechariah 9. In de Hulster, Izaak J., Brent A. Strawn, and Ryan P. Bonfiglio, eds., Iconographic Exegesis of the Hebrew Bible/Old Testament: An Introduction to Its Theory, Method, and Practice, 2015, pp. 227-241.   Göttingen Vandenhoeck
& Ruprecht
Bonnell,
John K.
1917 The Serpent with a Human Head in Art and in Mystery Play. [Especially: Figures 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10].   American Journal of Archaeology, Volume 21, Number 3, July-Septem-ber 1917, pp. 255-291
Breiner,
Laurence A.
1979 The Career of the Cockatrice. [Especially: Figures 1, 2, 3].   Isis, Volume 70, Number 1, March 1979, pp. 30-47
Busch,
Peter
1996 Der gefallene Drache: Mythenexegese am Beispiel von Apokalypse 12.   Tübingen A. Francke Verlag
Cansdale,
George Soper
1970 Animals of Bible Lands.   Exeter Paternoster Press
Chan,
Michael J. and
Maria Metzler
2014 Lions and Leopards and Bears, O My: Re-Reading Isa-iah 11:6-9 in Light of Comparative Iconographic and Lite-rary Evidence. In de Hulster, Izaak J. and Joel M. LeMon, eds., Image, Text, Exegesis: Iconographic Interpretation and the Hebrew Bible, 2014, pp. 196-225. [Especially: Figure 3].   London Bloomsbury
T&T Clark
Charbonneau-Lassay,
Louis
1940 Le bestiaire du Christ. La mystérieuse emblématique de Jésus-Christ. Mille cent cinquante-sept figures gravées sur bois par l'auteur. (1974: Reprint edition: L.J. Toth, Milan; 1975-1994: Reprint editions: Archè, Milan; 2006-2014: Re-print editions: Éditions Albin Michel, Paris).   Paris Éditions Desclée de Brouwer
Same Author 1991
The Bestiary of Christ. With Woodcuts by the Author. (1940, French; Translated and abridged by D.M. Dooling).   New York Parabola Books
Charlesworth,
James H.
2006 Prolegomenous Reflections on Ophidian Iconogra-phy, Symbology, and New Testament Theology. In Fotopoulos, J., ed., The New Testament and Early Christian Literature in Greco-Roman Context. Supplements to Novum Testamentum 122, 2006, pp. 315-329.   Leiden Brill
Same Author 2009 The Symbology of the Serpent in the Gospel of John. In Anderson, P., F. Just, and T. Thatcher, eds., John, Jesus, and History. Volume II: Aspects of Historicity in the Fourth Gospel, 2009, pp. 63-72.   Atlanta Society of Biblical Literature
Collins,
Adela Yarbro
2001 The Combat Myth in the Book of Revelation.   Eugene Wipf & Stock Publishers
Collins,
John Joseph and Adela Yarbro Collins
1993 Bel and the Serpent. In Collins, John Joseph, Adela Yarbro Collins, and Cross Frank Moore, ed., Daniel: A Commentary on the Book of Daniel, 1993, pp. 405-419.   Minneapolis Fortress Press
Colwell,
Ernest Cadman
1935 The Fourth Gospel and Early Christian Art.   The Journal of Religion, Volume 15, Number 2, April 1935, pp. 191-206
Cox,
Harvey
1967 On Not Leaving It to the Snake.   New York Macmillan
Daas,
Martha M.
2008 From Holy Hostess to Dragon Tamer: The Anomaly of Saint Martha.   Literature and Theology, Volume 22, Number 1, March 2008, pp. 1-15
Davies,
Le Grande
1986 Serpent Imagery in Ancient Israel: The Relationship Between the Literature and the Physical Remains. PhD Dis-sertation.   Salt Lake
City
The University of Utah
de Hulster,
Izaak J.
2014 A God of the Mountains? An Iconographic Perspective on the Aramean Argument in 1 Kings 20:23. In de Hulster, Izaak J. and Joel M. LeMon, eds., Image, Text, Exegesis: Iconogra-phic Interpretation and the Hebrew Bible, 2014, pp. 226-250. [Especially: Figure 10].   London Bloomsbury
T&T Clark
Same Author 2014 Appendix: Practical Resources for Iconographic Exegesis. In de Hulster, Izaak J. and Joel M. LeMon, eds., Image, Text, Exegesis: Iconographic Interpretation and the Hebrew Bible, 2014, pp. 285-295.   London Bloomsbury
T&T Clark
Same Author 2015 "A Monument and a Name": Isaiah 56 and the Aniconic Image. In de Hulster, Izaak J., Brent A. Strawn, and Ryan P. Bonfiglio, eds., Iconographic Exegesis of the Hebrew Bible/ Old Testament: An Introduction to Its Theory, Method, and Practice, 2015, pp. 181-196. [Especially: Figures 9.13a, 9.13b].   Göttingen Vandenhoeck
& Ruprecht
Same Author 2015 Iconography, Love Poetry, and Bible Translation: A Test Case with Song of Songs 7:2-6. In de Hulster, Izaak J., Brent A. Strawn, and Ryan P. Bonfiglio, eds., Iconographic Exegesis of the Hebrew Bible/Old Testament: An Introducti-on to Its Theory, Method, and Practice, 2015, pp. 313-328. [Especially: Figure 17.2].   Göttingen Vandenhoeck
& Ruprecht
Same Author 2015 Of Angels and Iconography: Isaiah 6 and the Biblical Concept of Seraphs and Cherubs. In de Hulster, Izaak J., Brent A. Strawn, and Ryan P. Bonfiglio, eds., Iconographic Exegesis of the Hebrew Bible/Old Testament: An Introduc-tion to Its Theory, Method, and Practice, 2015, pp. 147-164. [Especially: Figures 7.1, 7.2, 7.3, 7.4, 7.5, 7.6, 7.7, 7.8, 7.9. 7.10, 7.11, 7.12, 7.13, 7.14, 7.15, 7.26].   Göttingen Vandenhoeck
& Ruprecht
Same Author 2015 Picturing Ancient Israel's Cosmic Geography: An Ico-nographic Perspective on Genesis 1:1-2:4a. In de Hulster, Izaak J., Brent A. Strawn, and Ryan P. Bonfiglio, eds., Icono-graphic Exegesis of the Hebrew Bible/Old Testament: An In-troduction to Its Theory, Method, and Practice, 2015, pp. 45-61. [Especially: Figures 1.4, 1.5, 1.6, 1.8].   Göttingen Vandenhoeck
& Ruprecht
de Hulster,
Izaak J. and Brent A. Strawn
2015 Figuring Yhwh in Unusual Ways: Deuteronomy 32 and Other Mixed Metaphors for God in the Old Testament. In de Hulster, Izaak J., Brent A. Strawn, and Ryan P. Bonfiglio, eds., Iconographic Exegesis of the Hebrew Bible/Old Testament: An Introduction to Its Theory, Method, and Practice, 2015, pp. 117-133. [Especially: Figures 5.4, 5.5, 5.6].   Göttingen Vandenhoeck
& Ruprecht
Same Authors 2015 The Power of Images: Isaiah 60, Jerusalem, and Persian Imperial Propaganda. In de Hulster, Izaak J., Brent A. Strawn, and Ryan P. Bonfiglio, eds., Iconographic Exegesis of the Hebrew Bible/Old Testament: An Introduction to Its The-ory, Method, and Practice, 2015, pp. 197-215.   Göttingen Vandenhoeck
& Ruprecht
de Hulster,
Izaak J., Brent A. Strawn, and Ryan P. Bonfiglio
2015 Introduction: Iconographic Exegesis: Method and Practi-ce. In de Hulster, Izaak J., Brent A. Strawn, and Ryan P. Bon-figlio, eds., Iconographic Exegesis of the Hebrew Bible/Old Testament: An Introduction to Its Theory, Method, and Prac-tice, 2015, pp. 19-42. [Especially: Figures 4, 5, 6].   Göttingen Vandenhoeck
& Ruprecht
de Hulster,
Izaak J., Brent A. Strawn, and Ryan P. Bonfiglio, eds.
2015 Iconographic Exegesis of the Hebrew Bible/Old Tes-tament: An Introduction to Its Theory, Method, and Practice.   Göttingen Vandenhoeck
& Ruprecht
de Hulster,
Izaak J. and Joel M. LeMon
2014 Introduction: The Interpretive Nexus of Image and Text. In de Hulster, Izaak J. and Joel M. LeMon, eds., Image, Text, Exegesis: Iconographic Interpretation and the Hebrew Bible, 2014, pp. xix-xxiv.   London Bloomsbury
T&T Clark
de Hulster,
Izaak J. and Joel M. LeMon, eds.
2014 Image, Text, Exegesis: Iconographic Interpretation and the Hebrew Bible.   London Bloomsbury
T&T Clark
Dekker,
Jaap
2017 God and the Dragons in the Book of Isaiah. In van Bekkum, Koert et al., eds., Playing with Leviathan: Inter-pretation and Reception of Monsters from the Biblical World, 2017, pp. 21-39.   Leiden Brill
Demougeot,
Émilienne
1986 La symbolique du lion et du serpent sur les solidi des empéreurs d'occident de la première motié du Ve siècle.   Revue numismatique, Series 6, Volu-me 28, 1986, pp. 94-118
Dijkstra,
Meindert
2014 The Ivory Beds and Houses of Samaria in Amos. In de Hulster, Izaak J. and Joel M. LeMon, eds., Image, Text, Exegesis: Iconographic Interpretation and the Hebrew Bible, 2014, pp. 178-195.   London Bloomsbury
T&T Clark
Doak,
Brian R.
2015 Monster Violence in the Book of Job.   Journal of Religion and Violence, Vo-lume 3, Number 2, 2015, pp. 269-288
Drewer,
Lois
1981 Leviathan, Behemoth and Ziz: A Christian Adaptation. [Especially: Figures 15a, 15b, 15c, 15d, 15e, 16a, 16c, 17a, 17b, 18a, 18b, 18c, 18d].   Journal of the Warburg and Courtauld Institutes, Volume 44, 1981, pp. 148-156
Durand,
Jannic
2004 Byzantine Art. (Translated from the French by Murray Wy-llie). [Especially: Figures on pp. 103, 118, 195].   Paris Éditions Terrail
Ehresmann,
Donald
1967 The Brazen Serpent: A Reformation Motif in the Works of Lucas Cranach the Elder and His Workshop.   Marsyas: Studies in the History of Art, Volume 13, 1967, pp. 32-47
Elstein,
Yoav
1991 "A Pearl Inside a Snake's Mouth" - On the Function of a Motifeme of Gnostic Origin in Rabbinic Aggadah and in "The Tale of Three and Four", Second Version, by Bialik. [In He-brew; Especially: Figures 1, 2, 3].   Jerusalem Studies in Jewish Folklore, 1991, pp. 181-203
Erskine,
Thomas
1831 The Brazen Serpent; or, Life Coming through Death.   Edinburgh Waugh & Innes
Evans,
Edward Payson
1896 Animal Symbolism in Ecclesiastical Architecture. With a Bibliography and Seventy-Eight Illustrations. [Espe-cially: Figures on pp. 65, 69, 70, 80, 81, 85, 87, 101, 103, 159, 160].   New York Henry Holt & Company
Farbridge,
Maurice H.
1923 Studies in Biblical and Semitic Symbolism. (2007: Re-print edition: Wipf & Stock Publishers, Eugene). [Especially: Chapter III: The Animal Kingdom, pp. 53-84; Index: Animals as Symbols, pp. 7, 20, 53 ff.; Apophis, p. 73; Beasts, Worship of, p. 56 f.; Bestiaries, p. 53; Cobra, p. 72; Coins, Symbols on, pp. 28, 41, 76; Dragon, pp. 8, 53, 74, 160, 197; Hindu Reli-gion, Serpent in, p. 72; Leviathan, pp. 74, 75; Nehushtan, p. 75 f.; Rahab, p. 74; Rain, Connected with the Serpent, p. 72; Reptiles, pp. 56, 71; Serpent, pp. 20, 53, 60, 71 ff., 160 f., 174, 175, 194, 195; Snake Dances, p. 72; Tiamat, pp. 74, 102, 109, 195, 206].   London Routledge, Trench, Trübner & Company
Ferber,
Stanley
1966 Crucifixion Iconography in a Group of Carolingian Ivory Plaques. [Especially: Figures 1, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 11].   The Art Bulletin, Volume 48, Number 3/4, December 1966, pp. 323-334
Ferguson,
George
1954 Signs and Symbols in Christian Art. [Especially: Sec-tion I: Animals, Birds, and Insects; Articles Basilisk, Dolphin, Dragon (Serpent), Frog, Scorpion, Whale; Index: Basilisk, p. 11; Dolphin, p. 15; Dragon, pp. 16, 121f., 131, 140, 144; Plates 74, 80, 92; Frog, p. 19; Scorpion, p. 24; Serpent, pp. 101, 108; Snake, pp. 45, 126; Plate 86; Whale, pp. 15, 26, 66].   New York Oxford University Press
Finney,
Paul Corby
1994 The Invisible God: The Earliest Christians on Art. [Especi-ally: Front cover; Figures 5.3, 5.4, 5.6, 6.32, 6.37, 6.87, 7.4, 7.5].   New York Oxford University Press
Finney,
Paul Corby, ed.
2017 The Eerdmans Encyclopedia of Early Christian Art and Archaeology. Volumes I-III.   Grand
Rapids
William B. Eerdmans Publishing
Fiocchi Nicolai,
Vincenzo, Fabrizio Bisconti, and Danilo Mazzoleni
1999 The Christian Catacombs of Rome: History, Decorati-on, Inscriptions. (Translated from the Italian by Cristina Car-lo Stella and Lori-Ann Touchette; 2009: Third edition: Schnell & Steiner, Regensburg). [Especially: Figures 15, 52, 82, 100, 101, 105, 107, 108, 109, 111, 116, 117, 118; Plate II].   Regensburg Schnell & Steiner
Forsyth,
Neil
1987 The Old Enemy: Satan and the Combat Myth.   Princeton Princeton University Press
Gansell,
Amy Rebecca
2014 The Iconography of Ideal Feminine Beauty Represen-ted in the Hebrew Bible and Iron Age Levantine Ivory Sculp-ture. In de Hulster, Izaak J. and Joel M. LeMon, eds., Image, Text, Exegesis: Iconographic Interpretation and the Hebrew Bible, 2014, pp. 46-70.   London Bloomsbury
T&T Clark
Gardiner,
Philip and Gary Osborn
2005 The Serpent Grail: The Truth Behind the Holy Grail, the Philosopher's Stone and the Elixir of Life.   London Watkins Publishing
Gauer,
Werner
1995 Konstantin und die Geschichte zu den "Spolien" am Konstantinsbogen und zur Schlangensäule. In Wacht, Manfred, ed., Panchaia: Festschrift für Klaus Thraede, 1995, pp. 131-140.   Münster Aschendorff Verlag
Geddes,
Arthur
1945 Creation, and the Blessing or the Curse Upon Fruit-fulness: An Anthropogeographical Interpretation of Gene-sis I-III.   Man, Volume 45, November-Decem-ber 1945, pp. 123-128
Goodenough,
Erwin Ramsdell
1953-
1968
Jewish Symbols in the Greco-Roman Period. Volumes I-III: The Archeological Evidence from Palestine and the Dias-pora; Volume IV: The Problem of Method; Symbols from Jewish Cult; Volumes V-VI: Fish, Bread, and Wine; Volumes VII-VIII: Pagan Symbols in Judaism; Volumes IX-XI: Sym-bolism in the Dura Synagogue; Volume XII: Summary and Conclusions; Volume XIII: Indexes and Maps.   New York Pantheon Books
Same Author 1958 A Jewish-Gnostic Amulet of the Roman Period. [Espe-cially: Figure 8].   Greek, Roman, and Byzantine Studies, Volume 1, Number 1, 1958, pp. 71-80
Same Author 1988 Jewish Symbols in the Greco-Roman Period. Abridged Edition. (Edited, with a Foreword by Jacob Neusner). [Especi-ally: Figures 20, 39, 40, 81].   Princeton Princeton University Press
Grabar,
André
1966 Byzantium: From the Death of Theodosius to the Rise of Is-lam. (The Arts of Mankind. Volume X). (1966, French; Tran-slated by Stuart Gilbert and James Emmons). [Especially: Figures 106, 119, 192, 270, 291, 300, 329, 344, 380, 383, 390].   London Thames & Hudson
Same Author 1966 L'âge d'or de Justinien. De la mort de Théodose à l'Islam. (L'univers des formes. Tome X). [For the selection of relevant figures see the English edition, 1966].   Paris Éditions Gallimard
Same Author 1966 Le premier art chrétien. (200-395). (L'univers des for-mes. Tome IX). [For the selection of relevant figures see the English edition, 1968].   Paris Éditions Gallimard
Same Author 1968 Christian Iconography: A Study of Its Origins. [Especial-ly: Plates 2, 3, 4, 22, 27, 28, 29, 30, 34, 35, 39, 40, 58, 62, 76, 85, 210, 214, 218, 268, 335, 337].   Princeton Princeton University Press
Same Author 1968 Early Christian Art: From the Rise of Christianity to the Death of Theodosius. (The Arts of Mankind. Volume IX). (1966, French; Translated by Stuart Gilbert and James Em-mons). [Especially: Figures 19, 23, 31, 35, 64, 72, 73, 78, 80, 87, 100, 101, 123, 130, 132, 133, 136, 140, 147, 148, 153, 200, 228, 229, 251, 265, 268, 273, 283, 291, 304].   New York Odyssey Press
Gruber,
Johann Nepomuk
1864 Die Ophiten oder Schlangenbrüder. Historische Inau-gural-Abhandlung.   Würzburg C. J. Becker'schen Buchdruckerei
Gunkel,
Hermann
1895 Schöpfung und Chaos in Urzeit und Endzeit: Eine reli-gionsgeschichtliche Untersuchung über Gen 1 und Ap Jon 12.   Göttingen Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht
Same Author

2006 Creation and Chaos in the Primeval Era and the Es-chaton: A Religio-Historical Study of Genesis 1 and Revela-tion 12. (1895, German; Translated by K. William Whitney Jr.).   Grand
Rapids
William B. Eerdmans Publishing
Haak,
Kees
2017 The Dragon/Snake in Myth, Religion and Mission. Fear of Death Defeated by the Message of Life. In van Bek-kum, Koert et al., eds., Playing with Leviathan: Interpretati-on and Reception of Monsters from the Biblical World, 2017, pp. 233-248.   Leiden Brill
Haney,
Kristine Edmondson
1985 The Christ and the Beasts Panel on the Ruthwell Cross.   Anglo-Saxon England, Volume 14, 1985, pp. 215-231
Hanson,
Richard S.
1972 The Serpent Was Wiser: A New Look at Genesis 1-11.   Minneapolis Augsburg Fortress Publishers
Heck,
Christian and Rémy Cordonnier
2012 The Grand Medieval Bestiary: Animals in Illuminated Manuscripts.   New York Abbeville Press
Henry,
Marie-Louise
1958 Das Tier im religiösen Bewusstein des alttestament-lichen Menschen.   Tübingen Mohr Siebeck
Hönig,
Adolf
1889 Die Ophiten. Ein Beitrag zur Geschichte des jüdischen Gnosticismus. Inaugural-Dissertation.   Berlin Itzkowski Verlag
Hood
Ralph W. and W. Paul Williamson
2008 Them That Believe: The Power and Meaning of the Chris-tian Serpent-Handling Tradition.   Berkeley University of California Press
Hunziker-Rodewald,
Regine
2015 Thrones in Sheol: An Ancient Near Eastern Motif in Isaiah 14:9. In de Hulster, Izaak J., Brent A. Strawn, and Ryan P. Bonfiglio, eds., Iconographic Exegesis of the Hebrew Bible/ Old Testament: An Introduction to Its Theory, Method, and Practice, 2015, pp. 165-180. [Especially: Figures 8.3, 8.4, 8.5, 8.6].   Göttingen Vandenhoeck
& Ruprecht
Jensen,
Robin Margaret
2000 Understanding Early Christian Art. [Especially: Figu-res 2, 4, 13a, 32, 56, 63, 65].   Abingdon Routledge
Jones,
Scott C.
2011 Lions, Serpents, and Lion-Serpents in Job 28:8 and Be-yond. [Especially: Figures 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8].   Journal of Biblical Literature, Volu-me 130, Number 4, Winter 2011, pp. 663-686
Kahn,
Charles H., Daniel E. Gershenson, and Morton Smith
1959 Further Notes on "A Jewish Gnostic Amulet of the Roman Period".   Greek, Roman, and Byzantine Studies, Volume 2, Number 1, 1959, pp. 73-81
Keel,
Othmar
1972 Die Welt der altorientalischen Bildsymbolik und das Alte Testament: Am Beispiel der Psalmen. [For the selecti-on of relevant figures see the English edition, 1997].   Zürich Benziger Verlag
Same Author 1992 Das Recht der Bilder gesechen zu werden: Drei Fallstu-dien zur Methode der Interpretation altorientalischer Bilder.   Freiburg Universitätsverlag
Same Author 1997 The Symbolism of the Biblical World: Ancient Near Eastern Iconography and the Book of Psalms. (1972, Ger-man; Translated by Timothy J. Hallett). [Especially: Figures 15, 19, 20, 21, 32, 33, 37, 38, 39, 40, 41, 46, 47, 48, 49, 50, 51, 52 54, 55, 63, 82, 84, 89, 90, 91, 94, 103, 106, 120, 125, 126, 132a, 138, 142, 144, 162, 167a, 184, 187, 222b, 229, 230, 238, 245a, 265, 274, 291, 334, 341, 345, 346, 348, 350, 351, 352, 353, 356, 357, 357a, 365, 366, 368, 370, 371, 374, 375, 376, 377, 378, 379, 381, 385, 386, 389a, 391, 399, 402, 405, 405a, 410, 417a, 422, 425, 433a, 442, 443, 450, 475, 478; Plates IA, III, XVI, XVII, XXVIII].   Winona
Lake
Eisenbrauns
Keel,
Othmar and Christoph Uehlinger
1992 Göttinnen, Götter und Gottessymbole. [For the selecti-on of relevant figures see the English edition, 1998].   Fribourg Herder Verlag
Same Authors 1998 Gods, Goddesses, and Images of God in Ancient Israel. (1992, German; Translated by Thomas H. Trapp). [Especially: Figures 1b, 3a, 3c, 6, 14a, 15c, 32c, 32d, 33b, 34a, 34b, 37, 38, 40a, 60, 61, 74, 75a, 75b, 78, 85b, 87a, 87b, 87c, 89, 91, 92a, 92b, 93, 94a, 94c, 94d, 97a, 97b, 98a, 98b, 101a, 104, 105, 111, 112, 113, 117a, 117b, 130e, 134b, 134c, 140a, 144a, 144b, 144c, 158a, 159b, 159c, 182c, 226b, 241c, 245, 246, 247a, 247b, 248, 254a, 255, 259b, 270, 273, 274a, 274b, 274c, 274d, 284b, 295b, 338b].   Minneapolis Fortress Press
Kiessling,
Nicolas K.
1970 Antecedents of the Medieval Dragon in Sacred His-tory.   Journal of Biblical Literature, Volu-me 89, Number 2, June 1970, pp. 167-177
Kirschbaum, Engelbert et al.,
eds.
1968-
1976
Lexikon der Christlichen Ikonographie (LCI). Band I: Allgemeine Ikonographie, A-O - Ezechiel, 1968 [Especially: Articles (Figures) Abendmahl 2, Adam und Eva 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 7, 8, 9, 10; Adler 2; Affe 1; Allegorie 1; Apokalypse des Johannes 2, 3; Apokalyptisches Weib 1, 2; Apostel 1; Aspis 1; Auferste-hung Christi 2; Auge, Auge Gottes 1; Augustus 1; Barlaam und Joasaph 1; Bathseba 1; Bibelillustration 1; Biblia Paupe-rum 1; Bühne 1; Christus, Christusbild 16, 38; Dämonen 1; Drache 1, 2, 3; Drei Gesichter, Drei Köpfe 1; Ecclesia und Sy-nagoge 3, 4; Eherne Schlange 1, 2; Elemente, Vier 1, 3, 4; Erdkarte 1]; Band II: Fabelwesen - Kynokephalen, 1970 [Es-pecially: Articles (Figures) Fabelwesen 1, 3; Fisch 2, 3; Häre-sie, Häretiker 2; Hirt, Guter Hirt 1, 3, 7; Hölle 1; Höllenfahrt Christi 2; Immaculata Conceptio 1, 2; Jonas 1, 2, 3; Kalendri-um, Kalenderbild 4; Kirchenlehrer, Kirchenväter 2; Kreuz-allegorie 3, 4, 6]; Band III: Laban - Ruth, 1971 [Especially: Articles (Figures) Laster 6; Lauretanische Litanei 1; Löwe 6; Meer 1; Mensch 3; Messe, Meßopfer 1; Michael, Erzengel 1; Monate, Monatsbilder 1; Philosophie 2; Prediger 1; Reforma-tion 2]; Band IV: Saba, Königin von - Zypresse, Nachträge, 1972 [Especially: Articles (Figures) Schlange, Schlangen 1, 2, 3; Schmerzen Mariens 1; Schöpfer, Schöpfung 2, 6, 9, 11, 13, 14, 15, 16; Seelenreise, Seelengericht 1; Speculum Virginum 1; Sünde 2; Teufel 3, 5, 6; Tugenden 7; Vergündigung an Maria 6; Weltgericht 4; Wind, Winde 1; Zeit 2; Zodiakus 1]; Band V: Ikonographie der Heiligen, Aaron - Crescentianus von Rom, 1973 [Especially: Articles (Figures) Anna Selbdritt 6; Arist(i)-on von Salamaina 1; Barsamya (Barsimeus) von Edessa 1; Bischöfe 18(H); Callupanus 1; Christina von Bolsena 2]; Band VI: Crescentianus von Tunis - Innocentia, 1974 [Especially: Articles (Figures) Donatus von Arezzo 1; Eremiten (Einsied-ler), Heilige 1; Euphemia von Chalzedon, Verteidigerin der Orthodoxie 1; Felicissimus und Agapitus von Rom 1; Fidelis von Sigmaringen (Markus Roy) 1; Franz von Assisi 15; Georg 4, 7, 8, 10, 11; Heinrich (Henrik) von Uppsala 1; Hidulph (Hildulf) 1; Hieronimus 3; Hilarius von Poitiers 1; Hypatius von Gangra 1]; Band VII: Innozenz - Melchisedech, 1974 [Es-pecially: Articles (Figures) Johannes der Täufer 4; Joseph der Neue von Patros 1; Juliana von Nikomedien 1; Margareta (Marina) von Antiochien 2, 3, 4; Maria Magdalena 2]; Band VIII: Meletius - Zweiundvierzig Martyrer, Register, 1976 [Especially: Articles (Figures) Patricius (Patrick) 1; Quattuor Coronati 1; Simeon Stylites der Ältere 1; Theodor Tiro von Euchaïta (von Amasea) 3; Trias, Heilige 1; Vierzehn Nothel-fer 1; Wilhelm (Guilielmus) von Maleval (der Große) 3]. (1990, 1994: Reprint editions: Herder Verlag, Freiburg).   Freiburg Herder Verlag
Klingbeil,
Martin
1999 Yahweh Fighting from Heaven: God as Warrior and as God of Heaven in the Hebrew Psalter and Ancient Near Eas-tern Iconography. [Especially: Figures 2, 3, 11, 15, 18, 19, 21, 23, 69, 71, 81, 82, 83].   Fribourg Academic Press
Same Author 2014 "Children I Have Raised and Brought Up" (Isaiah 1:2): Female Metaphors for God in Isaiah and the Iconography of the Syro-Palestinian Goddess Asherah. In de Hulster, Izaak J. and Joel M. LeMon, eds., Image, Text, Exegesis: Iconogra-phic Interpretation and the Hebrew Bible, 2014, pp. 135-158.   London Bloomsbury
T&T Clark
Kloos,
Carola
1986 Yhwh's Combat with the Sea: A Canaanite Tradition in the Religion of Ancient Israel.   Leiden Brill
Knowles,
Michael P.
2014 Serpents, Scribes, and Pharisees.   Journal of Biblical Literature, Volu-me 133, Number 1, Spring 2014, pp. 165-178
Koch,
Guntram
1995 Frühchristliche Kunst. Eine Einführung. [For the selecti-on of relevant figures see the English edition, 1996].   Stuttgart W. Kohlhammer
Same Author 1996 Early Christian Art and Architecture: An Introduction. (1995, German; Translated by John Bowden). [Especially: Pla-tes 18.1, 18.2, 24.2, 30.4, 32.1; Figures 45, 47.1].   London SCM Press
Same Author 2000 Frühchristliche Sarkophage. [Especially: Figures 7.3, 9.1, 12.3, 12.4, 14.1, 14.2, 17.1, 17.2, 18.5, 21.2, 22, 31.3, 31.4, 36, 39, 41, 43, 48.1, 59, 60, 70, 72.2, 73.1, 77.1, 77.2; Plates 11, 12, 14, 18, 19, 21, 22, 27, 28, 39, 42, 46, 47, 48, 55, 59, 64, 71, 73, 74, 79, 126, 130, 131, 135, 138, 139, 143, 145, 155, 158, 179, 180, 185, 194].   München Verlag C.H. Beck
Korpel,
Marjo and Johannes
de Moor
2017 The Leviathan in the Ancient Near East. In van Bek-kum, Koert et al., eds., Playing with Leviathan: Interpretati-on and Reception of Monsters from the Biblical World, 2017, pp. 3-20.   Leiden Brill
Kripal,
Jeffrey John
2007 The Serpent's Gift: Gnostic Reflections on the Study of Re-ligion.   Chicago University of Chicago Press
Kwakkel,
Gert
2017 The Monster as a Toy. Leviathan in Psalm 104:26. In van Bekkum, Koert et al., eds., Playing with Leviathan: Interpretation and Reception of Monsters from the Biblical World, 2017, pp. 77-89.   Leiden Brill
Lachs,
Samuel Tobias
1965 Serpent Folklore in Rabbinic Literature.   Jewish Social Studies, Volume 27, Number 3, July 1965, pp. 168-184
Laeuchli,
Samuel
1966 The Serpent and the Dove: Five Essays on Early Chris-tianity.   Nashville Abingdon Press
Lancellotti,
Maria Grazia
2000 The Naassenes: A Gnostic Identity Among Judaism, Chris-tianity, Classical and Ancient Near Eastern Traditions.   Münster Ugarit-Verlag
Lazarev,
Viktor Nikitich
1986 История византийской живописи. Том I: Текст; Том II: Таблицы. (History of Byzantine Painting. Volume I: Texts; Volume II: Plates). [Especially: Plates 7, 95, 107, 195, 227, 242, 248, 254, 329, 390, 392, 393].   Moscow Iskusstvo
Leesti,
Elizabeth
1993 Carolingian Crucifixion Iconography: An Elaboration of a Byzantine Theme. [Especially: Figures 1, 2, 3, 5, 9].   RACAR: Revue D'art Canadienne/ Canadian Art Review, Volume 20, Number 1/2, 1993, pp. 3-15
LeMon,
Joel M.
2015 Masking the Blow: Psalm 81 and the Iconography of Di-vine Violence. In de Hulster, Izaak J., Brent A. Strawn, and Ryan P. Bonfiglio, eds., Iconographic Exegesis of the Hebrew Bible/Old Testament: An Introduction to Its Theory, Method, and Practice, 2015, pp. 281-294. [Especially: Figures 15.2, 15.3, 15.4a, 15.4b, 15.5a, 15.5b, 15.7b].   Göttingen Vandenhoeck
& Ruprecht
Same Author 2015 On Wings in a Prayer: Multistable Images for God in Psalm 63. In de Hulster, Izaak J., Brent A. Strawn, and Ryan P. Bonfiglio, eds., Iconographic Exegesis of the Hebrew Bible/Old Testament: An Introduction to Its Theory, Method, and Practice, 2015, pp. 263-279. [Especially: Figures 14.3, 14.4].   Göttingen Vandenhoeck
& Ruprecht
Levine,
Lee I.
2012 Visual Judaism in Late Antiquity: Historical Contexts of Jewish Art. [Especially: Figures 25, 33(1), 39(2), 48(2), 48(6), 90, 98(1), 110].   New Haven Yale University Press
Lewis,
Theodore J.
1996 CT 13.33-34 and Ezekiel 32: Lion-Dragon Myths. [Es-pecially: Figures 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 23, 24].   Journal of the American Oriental So-ciety, Volume 116, Number 1, Janua-ry-March 1996, pp. 28-47
Litwa,
M. David
2017 Paul the "God" in Acts 28: A Comparison with Philoctetes.   Journal of Biblical Literature, Volu-me 136, Number 3, Fall 2017, pp. 707-726
Lubetski,
Meir
2014 The Function and Meaning of My'mn on Hebrew Seals in Light of Accompanying Iconography. In de Hulster, Izaak J. and Joel M. LeMon, eds., Image, Text, Exegesis: Iconogra-phic Interpretation and the Hebrew Bible, 2014, pp. 29-45.   London Bloomsbury
T&T Clark
Lutzer,
Erwin W.
1996 The Serpent of Paradise: The Incredible Story of How Sa-tan's Rebellion Serves God's Purposes.   Chicago Moody Publishers
Magri,
Annarita
2007 Le serpent guérisseur et l'origine de la gnose ophite.   Revue de l'histoire des religions, Vo-lume 224, Number 4, October-De-cember 2007, pp. 395-434
Maguire,
Henry
1987 Adam and the Animals: Allegory and the Literal Sense in Early Christian Art. [Especially: Figures 2, 3, 4].   Dumbarton Oaks Papers, Volume 41, Studies on Art and Archeology in Ho-nor of Ernst Kitzinger on His Seven-ty-Fifth Birthday, 1987, pp. 363-373
Malbon,
Elizabeth Struthers
1990 The Iconography of the Sarcophagus of Junius Bas-sus. [Especially: Diagrams 1-1, 8-1, 8-2; Plates 1, 2, 4, 5, 11, 14, 15, 16, 38].   Princeton Princeton University Press
Martinek,
Manuela
1996 Wie die Schlange zum Teufel wurde: Die Symbolik in der Paradeisgeschichte von der hebräischen Bibel bis zum Koran.   Wiesbaden Harrassowitz Verlag
Mathews,
Thomas F.
1993 The Clash of Gods: A Reinterpretation of Early Christian Art. (1999: Revised and expanded edition: Princeton Univer-sity Press, Princeton). [Especially: Figures 7, 13, 38, 47, 75, 134, 139].   Princeton Princeton University Press
Mazar,
Amihai
1992 Archaeology of the Land of the Bible. [Volume I] 10,000-586 BCE. [Especially: Front cover; Figures 5.11, 5.12].   New York Doubleday Publishing
Meyers,
Eric M.
2001 Alexander to Constantine: Archaeology of the Land of the Bible, Volume III. [Especially: Figures 2.2, 2.3, 2.7, 2.13, 3.19, 3.21, 6.1, 7.1].   New Haven Yale University Press
Morey,
C.R.
1922 Christus Crucifer. [Especially: Figures 1, 2].   The Art Bulletin, Volume 4, Number 4, June 1922, pp. 117-126
Morris,
Paul and Deborah Sawyer, eds.
1992 A Walk in the Garden: Biblical, Iconographical and Lite-rary Images of Eden.   Sheffield Sheffield Academic Press
Mulder,
Michael
2017 Leviathan on the Menu of the Messianic Meal. The Use of Various Images of Leviathan in Early Jewish Tra-dition. In van Bekkum, Koert et al., eds., Playing with Levi-athan: Interpretation and Reception of Monsters from the Biblical World, 2017, pp. 117-132.   Leiden Brill
Murison,
Ross G.
1905 The Serpent in the Old Testament.   The American Journal of Semitic Languages and Literatures, Volume 21, Number 2, January 1905, pp. 115-130
Murray,
Peter and Linda
1996 The Oxford Companion to Christian Art and Archi-tecture. [Especially: Articles Aaron, Adam and Eve, Basilisk, Beasts (Symbolic), Bel and the Dragon, Bestiary, Brazen Ser-pent (The), Brescia Box, Daniel, Devil (The), Dragon, Eagle, George (Saint), Hell, Jonah, Leviathan, Man (The Fall of), Moses, Physiologus, Prudence, Serpent, Symbol, Symbolism, Tree of Knowledge; Figures on pp. 4, 151, 256, 311, 359, 424, 449, 536, 559]. (2013: Second revised edition published as The Oxford Dictionary of Christian Art and Archi-tecture edited by Tom Devonshire Jones: Oxford University Press, Oxford).   Oxford Oxford University Press
Pagels,
Elaine
1989 Adam, Eve, and the Serpent: Sex and Politics in Early Christianity.   New York Vintage Books
Pinney,
Roy
1964 The Animals in the Bible: The Identity and Natural His-tory of All the Animals Mentioned in the Bible.   Philadelphia Chilton Books
Plantinga,
Cornelius, Jr.
1991 Christ, the Snake.   Perspectives, Volume 6, 1991, pp. 14-15
Poesch,
Jessie
1970 The Beasts from Job in the Liber Floridus Manuscripts. [Especially: Figures 13a, 13b, 13c, 14a, 14b, 14c, 15a, 15b].   Journal of the Warburg and Court-auld Institutes, Volume 33, 1970, pp. 41-51
Poeschke,
Joachim
2010 Italian Mosaics: 300-1300. (Translated from the German by Russell Stockman). [Especially: Figures 1, 54, 72, 89; Plates 2, 3, 84, 85, 121, 123, 125, 146, 148, 158, 164, 174, 175, 177, 179, 180, 181, 182].   New York Abbeville Press
Pritchard,
James Bennett
1950 Ancient Near Eastern Texts Relating to the Old Testa-ment. (1955: Second edition: Princeton University Press, Prin-ceton; 1969: Third edition with supplement: Princeton Uni-versity Press, Princeton).   Princeton Princeton University Press
Same Author 1954 The Ancient Near East in Pictures Relating to the Old Testament. (1969: Second edition with supplement: Princeton University Press, Princeton). [Especially: Figures 107, 112, 132, 190, 225, 266, 258, 269, 293, 294, 297, 310, 312, 314, 315, 316, 318, 320, 321, 322, 326, 327, 328, 339, 342, 345, 347, 381, 382, 384, 385, 387, 388, 390, 391, 392, 393, 394, 395, 396, 397, 400, 405, 406, 407, 408, 409, 411, 412, 413, 414, 415, 416, 417, 419, 420, 421, 422, 423, 425, 447, 454, 470, 471, 472, 473, 474, 486, 493, 511, 513, 515, 519, 520, 523, 537, 544, 545, 547, 549, 556, 558, 563, 564, 566, 567, 570, 571, 572, 573, 585, 590, 591, 657, 658, 660, 665, 669, 670, 671, 675, 689, 691, 692, 705, 760, 761, 830, 834, 857, 858].   Princeton Princeton University Press
Same Author 1958,
1975
The Ancient Near East: An Anthology of Texts and Pic-tures. Volumes I-II.   Princeton Princeton University Press
Rasimus,
Tuomas
2009 Paradise Reconsidered in Gnostic Mythmaking: Re-thinking Sethianism in Light of the Ophite Evidence.   Leiden Brill
Same Author

N/A Jesus the Animal. [Forthcoming].   N/A N/A
Roitman,
Adolfo D.
1995 "Crawl upon Your Belly" (Gen. 3:14) - The Physical As-pect of the Serpent in Early Jewish Exegesis. [In Hebrew; Especially: Figures 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12].   Tarbiz, 1995, pp. 157-182
Rosenberg,
Alfons
1956 Michael und der Drache: Urgestalten von Licht und Fin-sternis.   Olten Walter Verlag
Sawyer,
John F.A.
1992 The Image of God, the Wisdom of Serpents and the Knowledge of Good and Evil. In Morris, Paul and Debo-rah Sawyer, eds., A Walk in the Garden: Biblical, Iconogra-phical and Literary Images of Eden, 1992, pp. 64-73.   Sheffield Sheffield Academic Press
Schiller,
Gertrud
1966-
1980
Ikonographie der Christlichen Kunst. Band I: Inkar-nation, Kindheit, Taufe, Versuchung, Verklärung, Wirken und Wunder Christi, 1966; Band II: Die Passion Jesu Christi, 1968; Band III: Die Auferstehung und Erhöhung Christi, 1971; Band IV, 1: Die Kirche, 1976; Band IV, 2: Maria, 1980; Band V, 1: Die Apokalypse des Johannes. Textteil, 1990; Band V, 2: Die Apokalypse des Johannes. Bildteil, 1991; Registerbeiheft zu den Bänden I - IV, 2, 1980. [For the selec-tion of relevant figures see the English editions, 1971, 1972].   Gütersloh Verlag Mohn
Same Author 1971,
1972
Iconography of Christian Art. Volume I: Christ's Incar-nation - Childhood - Baptism - Temptation - Transfiguration - Works and Miracles [Especially: Figures 1, 7, 8, 29, 57, 86, 100, 246, 249, 272, 273, 279, 280, 281, 307, 353, 359, 366, 380, 424, 427, 488]; Volume II: The Passion of Jesus Christ [Especially: Figures 2, 6, 13, 93, 167, 347, 354, 360, 361, 362, 364, 365, 366, 370, 371, 372, 373, 374, 376, 377, 379, 381, 382, 383, 387, 395, 422, 424, 427, 428, 429, 430, 431, 434, 442, 446, 448, 449, 451, 476, 480, 488, 504, 529, 530, 531, 532, 533, 534, 535, 536, 537, 538, 539, 570, 574, 795, 804]. (1966, 1968: German; Translated by Janet Seligman).   Greenwich New York Graphic Society
Schlüter,
Margarete
1982 "Derāqôn" und Götzendienst: Studien zur antiken judi-schen Religionsgeschichte, Ausgehend von Einem griechi-schen Lehnwort in mAZ III 3.   Frankfurt
am Main
Peter Lang
Schmerber,
Hugo
1905 Die Schlange des Paradieses: Religionsgeschichtlisch-kunsthistorische Studie.   Strassburg J.H.E. Heitz Verlag
Schmitt,
Rüdiger
2014 Mixed Creatures and the Assyrian Influence on the West Semitic Glyptic Repertoire. In de Hulster, Izaak J. and Joel M. LeMon, eds., Image, Text, Exegesis: Iconographic Inter-pretation and the Hebrew Bible, 2014, pp. 19-28.   London Bloomsbury
T&T Clark
Same Author 2015 Royal Construction in the Book of Kings: Architecture and/as Iconography. In de Hulster, Izaak J., Brent A. Strawn, and Ryan P. Bonfiglio, eds., Iconographic Exegesis of the Hebrew Bible/Old Testament: An Introduction to Its Theory, Method, and Practice, 2015, pp. 137-146.   Göttingen Vandenhoeck
& Ruprecht
Schreckenberg,
Heinz and Kurt Schubert
1992 Jewish Historiography and Iconography in Early and Medieval Christianity. I. Josephus in Early Chris-tian Literature and Medieval Christian Art; II. Jewish Picto-rial Traditions in Early Christian Art. (Translated from the German by Paul A. Cathey). [Especially: Figures 15, 16, 22, 29, 35, 46].   Assen Van Gorcum
Schumacher,
Johann Heinrich
1756 Erläuterung der dunkeln und schweren Lehrtafel der Alten Ophiten oder Schlangen-Brüder, nach den geheimen Grundsätzen der Kabbalisten abgefasset.   Wolfen-
büttel
Johann Christoph Meißner
Schütz,
Johannes
1580 Serpens antiquus, die alte Schlange, das Ist: Der Sac-raments Teuffel.   Eisleben Andreas Petri
Scurlock,
Jo Ann and Richard H. Beal, eds.
2013 Creation and Chaos: A Reconsideration of Hermann Gun-kel's Chaoskampf Hypothesis.   Winona
Lake
Eisenbrauns
Seel,
Otto
1995 Der Physiologus: Tiere und ihre Symbolik.   Zürich Artemis & Winkler Verlag
Siew,
Antoninus King Wai
2005 The War Between the Two Beasts and the Two Wit-nesses: A Chiastic Reading of Revelation 11:1-14:5.   London T&T Clark
Speake,
Jennifer
1994 The Dent Dictionary of Symbols in Christian Art. [Especially: Articles Adder, Animals, Dragon, Eagle, Fall of Man, Four Cardinal Virtues, George (St), Hell-Mouth, Jonah, Leviathan, Margaret of Antioch (St), Martha (St), Michael (St), Moses, Patrick (St), Satan, Scorpion, Snake, Sylvester (St), Theodore (St), Whale].   London J.M. Dent
Spier,
Jeffrey
1993 Medieval Byzantine Magical Amulets and Their Tradi-tion. [Especially: Plates 1a, 1b, 1c, 1d, 1e, 2a, 2b, 2c, 2d, 2e, 3a, 3b, 3c, 3d, 3e, 4a, 4b, 4c, 4d, 4e, 4f, 4g, 4h, 4i, 5a, 5b, 5c, 5d, 5e, 6a, 6c].   Journal of the Warburg and Court-auld Institutes, Volume 56, 1993, pp. 25-62
Same Author 2007 Picturing the Bible: The Earliest Christian Art. [Especial-ly: Figures 4, 5, 7, 9, 22, 32, 52, 74, 76, 86, 87, 88, 116; Catalo-gue s 2, 3B, 6, 8, 9A, 10A, 10C, 12, 13, 14, 15, 17, 18, 21 (figu-res 1, 2), 29, 39, 42 (figure 1), 44C, 47, 48, 53, 75, 78A, 78B].   Fort Worth Kimbell Art Museum
Staubli,
Thomas
2014 Images of Justification. In de Hulster, Izaak J. and Joel M. LeMon, eds., Image, Text, Exegesis: Iconographic Inter-pretation and the Hebrew Bible, 2014, pp. 159-177.   London Bloomsbury
T&T Clark
Same Author 2015 Judith's Victory Celebration and the Iconography of Twigs in Judith 15:12-13. In de Hulster, Izaak J., Brent A. Strawn, and Ryan P. Bonfiglio, eds., Iconographic Exegesis of the Hebrew Bible/Old Testament: An Introduction to Its The-ory, Method, and Practice, 2015, pp. 329-347. [Especially: Figures 18.12, 18.13, 18.16, 18.48].   Göttingen Vandenhoeck
& Ruprecht
Same Author 2015 The "Pagan" Prehistory of Genesis 22:1-14: The Icono-graphic Background of the Redemption of a Human Sacri-fice. In de Hulster, Izaak J., Brent A. Strawn, and Ryan P. Bonfiglio, eds., Iconographic Exegesis of the Hebrew Bible/ Old Testament: An Introduction to Its Theory, Method, and Practice, 2015, pp. 77-101. [Especially: Figures 3.17b, 3.23a].   Göttingen Vandenhoeck
& Ruprecht
Same Author 2015 What Do You See? Reading Zechariah's Yhwh-Vision (4:1-14) in Light of Southern Levantine Lunar Iconography. In de Hulster, Izaak J., Brent A. Strawn, and Ryan P. Bonfiglio, eds., Iconographic Exegesis of the Hebrew Bible/Old Testament: An Introduction to Its Theory, Method, and Practice, 2015, pp. 217-226. [Especially: Figure 11.3].   Göttingen Vandenhoeck
& Ruprecht
Stern,
Ephraim
2001 Archaeology of the Land of the Bible. Volume II: The Assyrian, Babylonian, and Persian Periods, 732-332 BCE. [Especially: Figures I.8, I.48, I.97, II.4, III.30, III.58].   New York Doubleday Publishing
Steymans,
Hans Ulrich
2014 The Egyptian Deity Menkeret and Psalm 89 as a Royal Funeral. In de Hulster, Izaak J. and Joel M. LeMon, eds., Image, Text, Exegesis: Iconographic Interpretation and the Hebrew Bible, 2014, pp. 251-284.   London Bloomsbury
T&T Clark
Strawn,
Brent A.
2014 The Iconography of Fear: Yir'at Yhwh (הוהי תארי) in Artis-tic Perspective. In de Hulster, Izaak J. and Joel M. LeMon, eds., Image, Text, Exegesis: Iconographic Interpretation and the Hebrew Bible, 2014, pp. 91-134. [Especially: Figures 3, 5, 6, 9, 10, 43, 47, 49, 50].   London Bloomsbury
T&T Clark
Same Author 2015 Lion Hunting in the Psalms: Iconography and Images for God, the Self, and the Enemy. In de Hulster, Izaak J., Brent A. Strawn, and Ryan P. Bonfiglio, eds., Iconographic Exegesis of the Hebrew Bible/Old Testament: An Introducti-on to Its Theory, Method, and Practice, 2015, pp. 245-261.   Göttingen Vandenhoeck
& Ruprecht
Same Author 2015 "The Fear of the Lord" in Two (or Three) Dimensi-ons: Iconography and Yir' at Yhwh. In de Hulster, Izaak J., Brent A. Strawn, and Ryan P. Bonfiglio, eds., Iconographic Exegesis of the Hebrew Bible/Old Testament: An Introducti-on to Its Theory, Method, and Practice, 2015, pp. 295-311. [Especially: Figures 16.3, 16.4, 16.5, 16.6, 16.22, 16.23].   Göttingen Vandenhoeck
& Ruprecht
Same Author 2015 The Image of God: Comparing the Old Testament with Other Ancient Near Eastern Cultures. In de Hulster, Izaak J., Brent A. Strawn, and Ryan P. Bonfiglio, eds., Iconographic Exegesis of the Hebrew Bible/Old Testament: An Intro-duction to Its Theory, Method, and Practice, 2015, pp. 63-75.   Göttingen Vandenhoeck
& Ruprecht
Same Author 2015 "With a Strong Hand and an Outstretched Arm": On the Meaning(s) of the Exodus Tradition(s). In de Hulster, Iza-ak J., Brent A. Strawn, and Ryan P. Bonfiglio, eds., Iconogra-phic Exegesis of the Hebrew Bible/Old Testament: An Intro-duction to Its Theory, Method, and Practice, 2015, pp. 103-116. [Especially: Figures 4.2, 4.3, 4.4, 4.5, 4.7, 4.9, 4.10, 4.13].   Göttingen Vandenhoeck
& Ruprecht
Swanson,
Kristin A.
2002 A Reassessment of Hezekiah's Reform in Light of Jar Handles and Iconographic Evidence.   The Catholic Biblical Quarterly, Vo-lume 64, Number 3, July 2002, pp. 460-469
Tabick,
Jacqueline
1986 The Snake in the Grass: The Problem of Interpreting a Symbol in the Hebrew Bible and Rabbinic Writings.   Religion, Volume 16, Issue 2, April 1986, pp. 155-167
Tilemannus,
Andreas Rivinus
1686 Nahash ha-Qadmoni ha-Masiah, Sive Serpens Iste Antiquus Seductor è Gen. III.1. seqq. Ad Mentem Doc-torum Judaeorum & Christianorum. Dissertatione Inaugu-rali Exhibitus.   Leipzig Christophorus Fleischerus
van Bekkum,
Koert, Jaap Dekker, Henk R. van den Kamp, and Eric Peels, eds.
2017 Playing with Leviathan: Interpretation and Reception of Monsters from the Biblical World.   Leiden Brill
van Bekkum,
Koert
2017 "Is Your Rage Against the Rivers, Your Wrath Against the Sea?" Storm-God Imagery in Habakkuk 3. In van Bekkum, Koert et al., eds., Playing with Leviathan: Interpretation and Reception of Monsters from the Biblical World, 2017, pp. 55-76.   Leiden Brill
van de Kamp,
Henk
2017 Leviathan and the Monsters in Revelation. In van Bekkum, Koert et al., eds., Playing with Leviathan: Inter-pretation and Reception of Monsters from the Biblical World, 2017, pp. 167-178.   Leiden Brill
van Houwelingen,
Theo
2017 The Air Combat between Michael and the Dragon. Revelation 12:7-12 in Relation to Similar Texts from the New Testament. In van Bekkum, Koert et al., eds., Playing with Leviathan: Interpretation and Reception of Monsters from the Biblical World, 2017, pp. 151-166.   Leiden Brill
van Spanje,
Theo
2017 Romans 16:17-20a: Imminent Danger and Victory. In van Bekkum, Koert et al., eds., Playing with Leviathan: Interpretation and Reception of Monsters from the Biblical World, 2017, pp. 133-150.   Leiden Brill
van Werven,
Ben
2017 As a Fish on Dry Land. Some Remarks on Tannîn in Ezekiel. In van Bekkum, Koert et al., eds., Playing with Leviathan: Interpretation and Reception of Monsters from the Biblical World, 2017, pp. 40-54.   Leiden Brill
von Mosheim,
Johann Lorenz
1748 Geschichte der Schlangenbrüder der ersten Kirche oder der so genannten Ophiten. (Versuch einer unpart-heischen und gründlichen Ketzergeschichte).   Helmstedt Christian Friederich Weygand
Volbach,
Wolfgang Friedrich
1958 Frühchristliche Kunst: Die Kunst der Spätantike in West- und Ostrom. [For the selection of relevant figures see the En-glish edition, 1961].   München Hirmer Verlag
Same Author 1961 Early Christian Art: The Late Roman and Byzantine Em-pires from the Third to the Seventh Centuries. (1958, Ger-man; Translated by Christopher Ligota). [Especially: Plates 2, 4 top, 5 top, 32, 37 top, 40 top, 41, 43, 46, 84 top, 85, 86 top, 87 top, 94, 103, 104 left, 107, 116, 117 bottom, 160, 161, 223, 253].   New York Harry N. Abrams
Wakeman,
Mary K.
1973 God's Battle with the Monster: Study in Biblical Ima-gery.   Leiden Brill
Ward,
William A.
1968 The Four-Winged Serpent on Hebrew Seals. [Especi-ally: Figures 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7].   Rivista degli Studi Orientali, Volume 43, Fascicle 2, April 1968, pp. 135-143
Watson,
Carolyn Joslin
1981 The Program of the Brescia Casket. [Especially: Figures 1, 2; Note 28 on Daniel and the Dragon].   Gesta, Volume 20, Number 2, 1981, pp. 283-298
Weitzmann,
Kurt, ed.
1979 Age of Spirituality: Late Antique and Early Christian Art, Third to Seventh Century. [Especially: Plates III, X, XII; Figu-res 9, 12, 17, 18, 20, 21, 22, 48, 50, 51, 52, 53, 56, 59, 61, 87; Catalogue s (and images) 110 (p. 132), 133 (p. 156), 134 (p. 157), 136 (p. 159), 137 (p. 160), 143 (p. 165), 151 (p. 172), 161 (p. 182), 162 (p. 183), 163 (p. 184), 164 (p. 186), 168 (p. 190), 173 (p. 194), 174 (p. 195), 175 (p. 196), 176 (p. 197), 184 (p. 209), 192 (p. 215), 197 (p. 221), 202 (p. 225), 219 (p. 243), 226 (p. 249), 228 (p. 250), 243 (p. 260), 251 (p. 274), 281 (p. 308), 310 (p. 331), 361 (p. 405), 365 (p. 409), 366 (p. 409), 369 (p. 411), 371 (p. 413), 374 (p. 417 bottom left), 377 (p. 421), 378 (p. 422), 384 (p. 426), 385 (p. 427), 386 (p. 428), 387 (p. 430), 389 (p. 432 right), 390 (p. 433), 411 (p. 460), 454 (p. 506), 471 (p. 526), 529 (p. 589)].   New York The Metropolitan Museum of Art
Westenholz,
Joan Goodnick, ed.
2000 Images of Inspiration: The Old Testament in Early Chris-tian Art. [Especially: Figure 9; Catalogue s (and images) 3 (p. 33), 4 (pp. 34, 35), 5 (p. 36 left top, 36 left bottom), 6 (p. 36 right), 7 (p. 37), 8 (p. 38), 10 (p. 43), 68, 72, 75, 77 (p. 106), [the information on items 78-93 is temporarily missing] 144 (p. 149), 145].   Jerusalem Bible Lands Museum
Woods,
David
2018 Constantine I and a New Christian Golden Age: A Secretely Christian Reverse Type Identified? [Especially: Fi-gures 10, 11].   Greek, Roman, and Byzantine Studi-es, Volume 58, 2018, pp. 366-388
Wyse-Rhodes,
Jackie
2014 Finding Asherah: The Goddesses in Text and Image. In de Hulster, Izaak J. and Joel M. LeMon, eds., Image, Text, Exe-gesis: Iconographic Interpretation and the Hebrew Bible, 2014, pp. 71-90.   London Bloomsbury
T&T Clark



Seminal
Works

Comparative & General Studies

Greco-Roman World

Ancient & Medieval European Paganism

Anatolia, Levant
& Mesopotamia

Egypt

Biblical
Tradition

Arabia & Early
Islam

Iran, Caucasus & Central Asia

Great Steppe &
Eurasian Nomads

India, Tibet, Sri Lan-ka & Southeast Asia

China, Korea
& Japan

« ● ARABIA & EARLY ISLAM ● »
Azarpay,
Guitty and
A.D. Kilmer
1978 The Eclipse Dragon on an Arabic Frontispiece-Miniature. [Especially: Figures 1, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10].   Journal of the American Oriental So-ciety, Volume 98, Number 4, Octo-ber-December 1978, pp. 363-374
Daneshvari,
Abbas
2011 Of Serpents and Dragons in Islamic Art: An Iconogra-phical Study.   Costa Mesa Mazda Publishers
Farhad,
Massumeh and Serpil Bağci
2009 Falnama: The Book of Omens. [Especially: Figures on pp. 6-7, 16-17; Figures 1.3, 1.4, 1,8, 2.4, 2.13, 2.14, 3.6, 3.11, 5.3, 5.8, 6.2, 6.10, 6.11, 9.7; Catalogue s (and images) 2 (p. 80), 3 (p. 81), 12 (p. 96), 13 (p. 99), 14 (p. 101), 15 (p. 102), 20 (p. 114), 28 (p. 133), 38 (p. 152), 41 (p. 159), 43 (pp. 164, 165), 48 (p. 175), 49 (p. 176), 54 (p. 187), 56 (pp. 192, 193), 59 (pp. 198, 199, 200-201), 60 (p. 202), 62 (p. 206), 65 (p. 212); Appendix A.1: Figures P Coll (p. 257), P Coll (p. 258), MdL (p. 260), Bsc (p. 262), AMSG (p. 262); Appendix A.2: Figures 9b, 10a, 10b, 11a, 11b, 13b, 17b, 24b, 31b, 38b, 39b, 42b, 43b, 51b, 56b; Appendix A.3: Figures 7b, 8b, 21b, 22b, 23b, 34b, 35b, 38b, 40b].   London Thames & Hudson
Grabar,
Oleg
2009 Masterpieces of Islamic Art: The Decorated Page from the 8th to the 17th Century. [Especially: Figure 7; Plates 1, 4, 11, 26, 27, 35, 48, 67, 77, 106, 120].   Munich Prestel
Hattstein,
Markus and Peter Delius, eds.
2004 Islam: Art and Architecture. [Especially: Figures on pp. 27, 50 left, 53 left, 55 top, 123, 157 bottom right, 158, 177 bottom, 195 top left, 196 right, 197 left, 202 top, 381 bottom, 392 bottom, 412 right, 449 bottom right].   Königs-
winter
Könemann
Kuehn,
Sarah
2011 The Dragon in Medieval East Christian and Islamic Art.   Leiden Brill
Same Author

2016 Vestiges of the Ourobóros in the Medieval Islamic Visual Tradition. In Kaelin, Oskar, Rolf Stucky, and Andrew Jamieson, eds., Proceedings of the 9th International Congress on the Archaeology of the Ancient Near East: June 9-13, 2014, University of Basel, Volume 1: Travelling Images - Transfer and Transformation of Visual Ideas; Dealing with the Past: Finds, Booty, Gifts, Spoils, Heirlooms; Collections at Risk: Sustainable Strategies for Managing Near Eastern Archaeological Collections, 2016, pp. 165-178.   Wiesbaden Harrassowitz Verlag
Naumkin,
Vitaly and Victor Porkhomovsky
2000 The Serpent in the Traditional Culture of Mahra and Socotra.   Proceedings of the Seminar for Ara-bian Studies, Volume 30, Papers from the Thirty-third Meeting of the Seminar for Arabian Studies Held in London, 15-17 July 1999, 2000, pp. 151-155
Stetkevych,
Suzanne Pinckney
2014 The Snake in the Tree in Abu Al-'Ala' Al-Ma'arri's "Epistle of Forgiveness": Critical Essay and Translation. [Especially: Illustration 1].   Journal of Arabic Literature, Volume 45, Number 1, 2014, pp. 1-80



Seminal
Works

Comparative & General Studies

Greco-Roman World

Ancient & Medieval European Paganism

Anatolia, Levant
& Mesopotamia

Egypt

Biblical
Tradition

Arabia & Early
Islam

Iran, Caucasus & Central Asia

Great Steppe &
Eurasian Nomads

India, Tibet, Sri Lan-ka & Southeast Asia

China, Korea
& Japan

« ● IRAN, CAUCASUS & CENTRAL ASIA ● »
Ackerman,
Phyllis
1936 The Iranian Serpentarius and Gemini. [Especially: Illustration 1].   Bulletin of the American Institute for Persian Art and Archaeology, Volu-me 4, Number 3, June 1936, pp. 126-129
Azarpay,
Guitty
2000 The Snake-Man in the Art of Bronze Age Bactria. [Es-pecially: Figures 1, 2].   Bulletin of the Asia Institute, New Se-ries, Volume 5, 1991, pp. 1-10
Barnett,
Richard D.
1987 The Serpent-Headed Tripod Base. [Especially: Figure 1].   Eretz-Israel: Archaeological, Historical and Geographical Studies, 1987, p. 1
Baumer,
Christoph
2012-
2018
The History of Central Asia. Volume I: The Age of the Steppe Warriors, 2012 [Especially: Figures on pp. 112, 173, 198, 256 bottom, 257, 262, 274, 284, 291, 302]; Volume II: The Age of the Silk Roads, 2014 [Especially: Figures 27, 37, 74, 123, 133, 151, 190, 242]; Volume III: The Age of Islam and the Mongols, 2016 [Especially: Figures 92, 93, 108, 124, 128, 154, 157, 159, 161, 163, 164, 172, 195, 224]; Volume IV: The Age of Decline and Revival, 2018 [Especially: Figures 36, 39, 53, 54].   London I.B. Tauris
Bussagli,
Mario
1963 Central Asian Painting: From Afghanistan to Sinkiang. (Translated from the Italian by Lothian Small; 1979: Second edition: Editions d'Art Albert Skira, New York and Rizzoli, New York). [Especially: Figures on pp. 45, 109].   Geneva Editions d'Art Albert Skira
Farridnejad,
Shervin
2015 Das zoroastrische mar-name "Schlangenbuch". Zur zoroastrischen Volksreligion und Ophiomantik. In Farridne-jad, Shervin, Rika Gyselen, and Anke Joisten-Pruschke, eds., Faszination Iran. Beiträge zur Religion, Geschichte und Kunst des Alten Iran: Gedenkschrift für Klaus Schippmann, 2015, pp. 51-86.   Wiesbaden Harrassowitz Verlag
Ghirshman,
Roman
1962 Parthes et Sassanides. Iran. (L'univers des formes. Tome III). [For the selection of relevant figures see the English edi-tion, 1962].   Paris Éditions Gallimard
Same Author 1962 Iran: Parthians and Sassanians. (The Arts of Mankind. Volume III). (1962, French; Translated by Stuart Gilbert and James Emmons). [Especially: Figures 3, 17, 98, 103, 168, 300, 350, 382].   London Thames & Hudson
Same Author 1964 Perse. (L'univers des formes. Tome V). [For the selection of relevant figures see the English edition, 1964].   Paris Éditions Gallimard
Same Author 1964 Persia: From the Origins to Alexander the Great. (The Arts of Mankind. Volume V). (1964, French; Translated by Stuart Gilbert and James Emmons). [Especially: Figures 97, 149, 174, 491].   London Thames & Hudson
Kuftin,
Boris Alekseevich
1949 Материалы к археологии Колхиды. Том I. (Materi-als for the Archaeology of Colchis. Volume I). [Especially: Fi-gures 19, 20, 31, 38].   Tbilisi Tekhnika da Shroma
Lassikova,
Galina
2010 Hushang the Dragon-Slayer: Fire and Firearms in Safa-vid Art and Diplomacy. [Especially: Figures 1, 2, 3, 4].   Iranian Studies, Volume 43, Number 1, 2010, pp. 29-51
Nicolaus,
Peter
2011 The Serpent Symbolism in the Yezidi Religious Tra-dition and the Snake in Yerevan. [Especially: Figure 1].   Iran & the Caucasus, Volume 15, Number 1/2, 2011, pp. 49-72
Pourjavadi,
Nasrollah, ed.
2001 The Splendour of Iran. Volume I: Ancient Times [Especi-ally: Figures on pp. 187, 192, 302-303, 343, 499 right, 500-501]; Volume II: Islamic Period [Especially: Figures on pp. 246-247, 397 top]; Volume III: Islamic Period [Especially: Figures on pp. 85, 254, 254-255, 304, 319, 328].   London Booth-Clibborn Editions
Root,
Margaret Cool
2002 Animals in the Art of Ancient Iran. In Collins, Billie Jean, ed., A History of the Animal World in the Ancient Near East, 2002, pp. 169-210. [Especially: Figures 5.1, 5.2].   Leiden Brill
Rosenzweig,
Daphne Lange
1978 Stalking the Persian Dragon: Chinese Prototypes for the Miniature Representations. [Especially: Figures 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20].   Kunst Des Orients, Volume 12, Num-ber 1/2, 1978, pp. 150-176
Russel,
James R.
2008 Magic Mountains, Milky Seas, Dragon Slayers, and Other Zoroastrian Archetypes.   Bulletin of the Asia Institute, New Se-ries, Volume 22, Zoroastrianism and Mary Boyce with Other Studies, 2008, pp. 57-77
Stierlin,
Henri
2006 Splendors of Ancient Persia. [Especially: Figures on pp. 4-5, 24 left, 53 top, 53 bottom, 70-71, 170-171, 192 bottom, 218, 238-239].   Vercelli White Star
Talbot Rice,
Tamara
1965 Ancient Arts of Central Asia. [Especially: Plates 7, 29, 35, 36, 81, 89, 92, 121, 130, 161, 192].   London Thames & Hudson
Winckelmann,
Sylvia
2000 Intercultural Relations between Iran, the Murghabo-Bactrian Archaeological Complex (BMAC), Northwest India and Failaka in the Field of Seals. [Especially: Figures 3.6, 3.8, 3.10, 3.11, 3.12, 5, 8, 9, 10, 11, 13, 15, 16, 17a, 17b, 21, 27, 28, 29, 30, 31, 37a].   East and West, Volume 50, Number 1/4, December 2000, pp. 43-95



Seminal
Works

Comparative & General Studies

Greco-Roman World

Ancient & Medieval European Paganism

Anatolia, Levant
& Mesopotamia

Egypt

Biblical
Tradition

Arabia & Early
Islam

Iran, Caucasus & Central Asia

Great Steppe &
Eurasian Nomads

India, Tibet, Sri Lan-ka & Southeast Asia

China, Korea
& Japan

« ● GREAT STEPPE & EURASIAN NOMADS ● »
Akishev,
Alisher Kimalevich
1984 Искусство и мифология саков. (Art and Mythology of the Saka). [Especially: Глава 1.2: Великие звери: Значение синкретических изображений. (Chapter 1.2: Great Ani-mals: Meaning of the Syncretistic Images), pp. 28-65].   Alma-Ata Nauka
Alekseev,
Andrei Yurievich
2012 Золото скифских царей в собрании Эрмитажа. (The Gold of the Scythian Kings in the State Hermitage Col-lection). [Especially: Figures on pp. 7, 11.1, 27.1, 166, 167, 168, 169, 178, 179, 246, 257].   St.Peters-burg Izdatel'svto Gosudar-stvennogo Ermitazha
Same Author 2015 Стрелы-змеи у ранних кочевников Евразии. (Ar-rows-Snakes of the Early Eurasian Nomads). In Война и во- енное дело в скифо-сарматском мире. Материалы Меж- дународной научной конференции, посвящённой памяти А.И. Мелюковой (Кагальник, 26-29 апреля 2014 г.), (War and Warfare in the Scytho-Sarmatian World. Materials of the International Academic Conference in memory of A.I. Melyu-kova (Kagal'nik, 26-29 April 2014)), 2015, pp. 6-8. [Especially: Figures 1, 2].   Rostov-
on-Don
Southern Scientific Centre, Russian Aca-demy of Sciences Publishers
Artamonov,
Mikhail Illarionovich
1961 Антропоморфные божества в религии скифов. (Anthropomorphic Deities in the Scythian Religion). [Especi-ally: Figures 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 16].   Arheologicheskiy Sbornik Gosudar-stvennogo Ermitazha (ASGE), Issue 2, 1961, pp. 57-87
Same Author 1966 Сокровища скифских курганов в собрании Государ-ственного Эрмитажа. (Treasures from Scythian Kurgans
in the State Hermitage Collection
).
  Leningrad Sovetskiy Khudozhnik
Same Author 1969 Treasures from Scythian Tombs in the Hermitage Mu-seum, Leningrad. (1966, Russian; Translated and abridged by V.R. Kupriyanova). [Especially: Plates 67, 121, 133, 144, 186, 207, 208, 210, 214, 215, 230, 256, 275, 323, 325].   London Thames & Hudson
Same Author 1973 Сокровища саков: Аму-Дарьинский клад. Алтайские курганы. Минусинские бронзы. Сибирское золото. (Saka Treasures: The Amu Darya Hoard. Altai Kurgans. Minusinsk Bronzes. Siberian Gold). [Especially: Figures 183, 186, 187, 206, 208, 213, 214, 216, 232].   Moscow Iskusstvo
Bessonova,
Svetlana Sergeevna
1983 Религиозные представления скифов. (Religiuos Be-liefs of the Scythians). [Especially: Figures 1, 10.1, 10.2, 18, 19, 20.1, 20.2, 21, 22.1, 22.2, 22.3, 30].   Kiev Naukova Dumka
Bunker,
Emma C.
1997 Ancient Bronzes of the Eastern Eurasian Steppes from the Arthur M. Sackler Collections.   New York Arthur M. Sackler Foundation
Bunker,
Emma C., James C.Y. Watt, and Zhixin Sun
2002 Nomadic Art of the Eastern Eurasian Steppes: The Eugene V. Thaw and Other New York Collections. [Especial-ly: Catalogue s 17, 82, 84, 95, 102, 105, 106, 107, 127, 172].   New York Metropolitan Museum of Art
Chernenko,
Evgeniy Vasilievich
1968 Скифский доспех. (Scythian Armour). [Especially: Figu-res 26, 27, 28, 60.1, 64.2].   Kiev Naukova Dumka
Devlet,
Marianna Artashirovna
1976 О происхождении минусинских ажурных пояс-ных пластин. (On the Origin of the Minusinsk Openwork Belt Plates). In Melyukova, Anna Ivanovna and Marina Gle-bovna Moshkova, eds., Скифо-сибирский звериный стиль в искусстве народов Евразии. (Scytho-Siberian Animal Style in the Art of Eurasia), 1976, pp. 219-227. [Especially: Figures 3.7, 3.8, 4.1, 4.2, 4.3].   Moscow Nauka
Grakov,
Boris Nikolaevich
1971 Скифы. (Scythians). [Especially: Plates VII, XIV, XV, XXVII].   Moscow Izdatel'stvo Moskov-skogo Universiteta
Gryaznov,
Mikhail Petrovich
1958 Древнее искусство Алтая. L’art ancien de l’Altaï. (The Ancient Art of Altay).   Leningrad Gosudarstvennyi Ermitazh
Higham,
Nicholas J.
2018 King Arthur: The Making of the Legend. [Especially: Chap-ter 2: The "Sarmatian Connection", pp. 40-76; Chapter 3: King Arthur and the Narts, pp. 77-116].   New Haven Yale University Press
Jacobson,
Esther
1993 The Deer Goddess of Ancient Siberia: A Study in the Ecology of Belief.   Leiden Brill
Same Author 1995 The Art of the Scythians: The Interpenetration of Cultu-res at the Edge of the Hellenic World. [Especially: Figures 4, 58, 59, 94, 101, 141, 142, 143].   Leiden Brill
Jettmar,
Karl
1964 Die frühen Steppenvölker. Der eurasiatische Tierstil.   Baden-
Baden
Holle Verlag
Same Author 1967 Art of the Steppes. (German, 1964; Translated by Ann E. Keep). [Especially: Plates 2, 7, 33, 40, 42; Figure 111].   New York Greystone Press
Kondakov,
Nikodim Pavlovich
(De facto; Published under the lead author-ship of Count Tolstoy, Ivan Ivanovich)
1889-
1890
Русские древности в памятниках искусства. (Art of the Russian Antiquity). Выпуск I: Классические древ-ности Южной России. (Issue I: Classical Antiquities of the South Russia, 1889). [Especially: Figures 36, 44, 53, 75, 91, 95, 108, 114, 117]; Выпуск II: Древности скифо-сармат-ские. (Issue II: Scytho-Sarmatian Antiquities, 1889). [Espe-cially: Figures 65, 86, 97, 98, 99, 103, 125]; Выпуск III: Древ-ности времен переселения народов. (Issue III: Antiquities of the Migration Period, 1890). [Especially: Figures 19, 21, 54, 55, 57, 58, 68, 93, 94].   St.Peters-burg Tipografia Ministerstva Putey Soobshcheniya
Korenyako,
Vladimir Aleksandrovich
2002 Искусство народов Центральной Азии и звери-ный стиль. (Art of Central Asia and the Animal Style). [Especially: Figures V-XXXIII, L-LIV].   Moscow Vostochnaya Literatura
Korol'kova,
Elena Fyodorovna
2006 Звериный стиль Евразии. Искусство племён Нижне-го Поволжья и Южного Приуралья в скифскую эпоху (VII-IV вв. до н.э.). Проблемы стиля и этно-культурной принадлежности. (The Animal Style of Eurasia: Art of the Lower Volga and South Urals Tribes in Scythian Epoch (7-4 centuries BC). Problems of Style and Ethnocultural Affilia-tion).   St.Peters-burg Peterburgskoe Vostokovedenie
Koshelenko,
Gennadiy Andreevich, Irina Timofeevna Kruglikova, and V.S. Dolgorukov, eds.
1984 Античные государства Северного Причерномо- рья. Археология СССР. Том IХ. (Ancient States of the Northern Black Sea Region. Archaeology of the USSR. Volu-me IX). [Especially: Colour Plates: III.4, VI.3; Plates II.13, III.22, V.5, XXXVI.12, XLII.4, LXXII.2, LXXVII.28, LXXVII.29, LXXXI.14, LXXXI.33, XCIII.4, XCIII.6, CI.2, CI.4, CI.6, CII.1, CV.8, CX.4, CXII.5, CXIX.2, CXIX.3, CXXI.3, CXXII.4, CXXVI.3, CXXVI.4, CXXVII.4, CXXXIII.5, CXLV.3, CLVII.34, CLXVI.1, CLXVI.19, CLXVII.4, CLXVII.23].   Moscow Nauka
Lelekov,
Leonid Arkadievich
1976 Наследие звериного стиля в искусстве средне- вековья и Древней Руси. (The Legacy of Animal Style in the Art of the Middle Ages and Ancient Russia). In Melyu-kova, Anna Ivanovna and Marina Glebovna Moshkova, eds., Скифо-сибирский звериный стиль в искусстве народов Евразии. (Scytho-Siberian Animal Style in the Art of Eura-sia), 1976, pp. 258-270. [Especially: Figures 1.5, 2.1, 2.2, 2.4].   Moscow Nauka
Leskov,
Aleksandr Mikhailovich and Valeriy Leonidovich Lapushnyan, eds.
1987 Шедевры древнего искусства Кубани. (Art Treasu-res of Ancient Kuban). [Especially: Plates XV, XVI; Figures 38, 51, 52, 79; Catalogue s 82, 101, 132, 134, 230].   Moscow Ministerstvo Kul'tury SSSR
Littleton,
C. Scott
1979 The Holy Grail, the Cauldron of Annwn, and the Nartyamonga: A Further Note on the Sarmatian Con-nection.   The Journal of American Folklore, Volume 92, Number 365, July-Sep-tember 1979, pp. 326-333
Littleton,
C. Scott and Ann C. Thomas
1978 The Sarmatian Connection: New Light on the Origin of the Arthurian and Holy Grail Legends.   The Journal of American Folklore, Volume 91, Number 359, January-March 1978, pp. 513-527
Littleton,
C. Scott and Linda A. Malcor
2000 From Scythia to Camelot: A Radical Reassessment of the Legends of King Arthur, the Knights of the Round Table, and the Holy Grail.   New York Routledge
Martynov,
Anatoliy Ivanovich and Vyacheslav Ivanovich Molodin, eds.
1987 Скифо-сибирский мир: искусство и идеология. (The Scytho-Siberian World: Art and Ideology).   Novosibirsk Nauka
Melyukova,
Anna Ivanovna,
ed.
1989 Степи европейской части СССР в скифо-сармат-ское время. Археология СССР. Том Х. (Steppes of the European Part of the USSR in the Scytho-Sarmatian Period. Archaeology of the USSR. Volume X). [Especially: Plates 32.13a, 37.15, 38.8, 40.18, 42.42, 64.5, 70.65, 102.45].   Moscow Nauka
Melyukova,
Anna Ivanovna and Marina Glebovna Moshkova, eds.
1976 Скифо-сибирский звериный стиль в искусстве народов Евразии. (Scytho-Siberian Animal Style in the Art of Eurasia).   Moscow Nauka
Minns,
Ellis Hovell
1913 Scythians and Greeks: A Survey of Ancient History and Archaeology on the North Coast of the Euxine from Danube to the Caucasus. (2010: Reprint edition: Cambridge Univer-sity Press, Cambridge). [Especially: Figures 42, 54, 59, 88, 98, 99, 106, 111, 119, 146, 195, 200, 235, 237, 238, 276, 277, 278, 316, 318].   Cambridge Cambridge University Press
Moshkova,
Marina Glebovna,
ed.
1992 Степная полоса Азиатской части СССР в скифо-сарматское время. Археология СССР. Том XI. (The Steppe Belt of the Asian Part of the USSR in the Scytho-Sar-matian Period. Archaeology of the USSR. Volume XI). [Espe-cially: Plates 68.19, 94.73, 97.33, 113.11].   Moscow Nauka
Perevodchikova,
Elena Vladimirovna
1994 Язык звериных образов: Очерки искусства Евразий-ских степей скифской эпохи. (The Language of Animal Images: Selected Essays on the Art of Eurasian Steppes of the Scythian Epoch). [Especially: Figure 20.7].   Moscow Vostochnaya Literatura
Piotrovskiy,
Boris Borisovich
1975 From the Lands of the Scythians: Ancient Treasures from the Museums of the USSR, 3000 BC-100 BC. [Especial-ly: Plates 11.2, 14.2, 16, 20, 22.1, 30.1; Catalogue s 46, 85].   New York Metropolitan Museum of Art
Same Author 1986 Scythian Art: The Legacy of The Scythian World: Mid-7th to 3rd Century BC.   Leningrad Aurora
Raevskiy,
Dmitriy Sergeevich
1977 Очерки идеологии скифо-сакских племён. Опыт реконструкции скифской мифологии. (Selected Essays on Ideology of the Scytho-Sakian Tribes. Attempt of the Recon-struction of Scythian Mythology).   Moscow Nauka
Same Author

1985 Модель мира скифской культуры. Проблемы миро-воззрения ираноязычных народов евразийских степей I тыс. до н.э. (The World Model of Scythian Culture. World-view of the Iranian-Speaking Peoples of the Eurasian Step-pes in the First Millenium BC).   Moscow Nauka
Same Author

1993 Scythian Mythology. (Russian, 1985; Translated by Ne-dyalka Chakalova). [Especially: Figures 3, 4, 6, 7, 55, 66, 67].   Sofia Secor
Same Author

2006 Мир скифской культуры. (The Universe of Scythian Culture). [Especially: Очерки идеологии скифо-сакских пле- мён. Опыт реконструкции скифской мифологии. (Selec-ted Essays on Ideology of the Scytho-Sakian Tribes. Attempt of the Reconstruction of Scythian Mythology), Глава I: Скифская генеалогическая легенда. (Chapter I: Scythian Genealogical Legend), pp. 35-105; Дополнение I: Таргитай и Траетаона. (Addendum I: Targitay and Traetaona), pp. 106-112].   Moscow Yazyki Slavyanskikh Kul'tur
Reeder,
Ellen D., ed.
1999 Scythian Gold: Treasures from Ancient Ukraine. [Especi-ally: Catalogue s 50, 74, 121, 143, 154].   New York Harry N. Abrams
Rostovtzeff,
Mikhail Ivanovich
1918 Эллинство и иранство на юге России. (Hellenism and Iranism in South Russia).   Petrograd Ogni
Same Author 1922 Iranians and Greeks in South Russia. (1918, Russian; Translated (partially) by J.D. Beazley). [Especially: Plates XIII.D, XIV, XV.1].   Oxford Clarendon Press
Same Author 1929 The Animal Style in South Russia and China. (1975: Reprint edition: Hacker Art Books, New York).   Princeton Princeton University Press
Rudenko
Sergey Ivanovich
(with N.M. Rudenko)
1949 Искусство скифов Алтая. (Art of the Altay Scythians). [Especially: Figure 21].   Moscow Izadetl'stvo Gosudar-stvennogo Muzeya Izo-brazitel'nykh Iskusstv imeni A.S. Pushkina
Same Author 1952 Горноалтайские находки и скифы. (The Gorno-Al-tay Findings and the Scythians). [Especially: Figure 123a].   Moscow Izdatel'stvo Akademii Nauk SSSR
Same Author 1953 Культура населения Горного Алтая в скифское время. (Culture of the Gorno-Altay in the Scythian Period). [Especially: Figure 167].   Moscow Izdatel'stvo Akademii Nauk SSSR
Same Author 1961 Искусство Алтая и Передней Азии (середина I ты-сячелетия до н.э.). (Art of the Altay and the Near East, Mid-dle of the First Millenium BC).   Moscow Izdatel'stvo Vostochnoy Literatury
Same Author 1962 Сибирская коллекция Петра I. (Siberian Collection of Peter the Great). [Especially: Figure 1; Plates I.1, II.2, II.9, IX.1, IX.2, IX.6, IX.7, IX.8, XII.4, XII.5, XXV.2, XXV.3, XXV.4, XXV.5].   Moscow Nauka
Same Author 1970 Frozen Tombs of Siberia: The Pazyryk Burials of Iron Age Horsemen. (Russian, 1953; Translated by M.W. Thompson).   Berkeley University of California Press
Sarianidi,
Viktor Ivanovich
1985 Золото Бактрии. (Bactrian Gold).   Leningrad Aurora
Same Author 1985 The Golden Hoard of Bactria: From the Tillya-tepe Ex-cavations in Northern Afghanistan. (Russian, 1985; Tran-slated by Arthur Shkarovsky-Raffé). [Especially: Plates 44, 45, 46, 47, 81, 82, 84, 98, 111, 157, 158, 159, 160, 161, 162, 163, 166; Catalo-gue s 2.7, 3.1, 3.60, 4.4, 4.8, 4.9, 4.34].   New York Harry N. Abrams
Skalon,
Kira Mikhailovna
1962 Изображение дракона в искусстве IV-V веков. (The Image of the Dragon in the Art of the IV-V Centuries). [Especially: Figures 1, 2, 3, 4].   Soobshcheniya Gosudarstvennogo Ermitazha, Volume 22, 1962, pp. 40-43
Smirnov,
Konstantin Fyodorovich
1961 Вооружение савроматов. (Sauromatian Armaments). [Especially: Plates 16А.5-17, 21Б.23].   Moscow Izdatel'stvo Akademii Nauk SSSR
Same Author 1976 Савромато-сарматский звериный стиль. (Sauro-mato-Scythian Animal Style). In Melyukova, Anna Ivanovna and Marina Glebovna Moshkova, eds., Скифо-сибирский зве-риный стиль в искусстве народов Евразии. (Scytho-Sibe-rian Animal Style in the Art of Eurasia), 1976, pp. 74-89. [Especially: Figure 7.1].   Moscow Nauka
Sulimirski,
Tadeusz
1970 The Sarmatians. [Especially: Figures 6, 13, 74; Plates 4, 45, 46, 53].   New York Praeger Publishers
Talbot Rice,
Tamara
1957 The Scythians. [Especially: Plates 1, 13].   New York Frederick A. Praeger
Ustinova,
Yulia
2005 Snake-Limbed and Tendril-Limbed Goddesses in the Art and Mythology of the Mediterranean and the Black Sea. In Braund, David, ed., Scythians and Greeks: Cultural Inter-actions in Scythia, Athens and the Early Roman Empire (Sixth Century BC to First Century AD), 2005, pp. 64-79, 194-200. [Especially: Figures 6.1, 6.2, 6.3, 6.4, 6.5].   Exeter Exeter University Press
Wadge,
Richard
1987 King Arthur: A British or Sarmatian Tradition?   Folklore, Volume 98, Number 2359, 1987, pp. 204-215
Yakovenko,
Eleonora Viktorovna
1976 Предметы звериного стиля в раннескифских па- мятниках Крыма. (Animal Style Artefacts in the Early-Scythian Monuments of Crimea). In Melyukova, Anna Iva-novna and Marina Glebovna Moshkova, eds., Скифо-сибир-ский звериный стиль в искусстве народов Евразии. (Scy-tho-Siberian Animal Style in the Art of Eurasia), 1976, pp. 128-137. [Especially: Figure 10].   Moscow Nauka



Seminal
Works

Comparative & General Studies

Greco-Roman World

Ancient & Medieval European Paganism

Anatolia, Levant
& Mesopotamia

Egypt

Biblical
Tradition

Arabia & Early
Islam

Iran, Caucasus & Central Asia

Great Steppe &
Eurasian Nomads

India, Tibet, Sri Lan-ka & Southeast Asia

China, Korea
& Japan

« ● INDIA, TIBET, SRI LANKA & SOUTHEAST ASIA ● »
Albanese,
Marilia
2001 India: Treasures from an Ancient World. [Especially: Figu-res on pp. 2-3, 34 top, 42, 47, 49, 50, 62, 63 right, 64, 65 bot-tom, 67 bottom, 74-75, 76, 84-85, 102-103, 126-127, 132-133, 133 bottom, 142 centre, 142 bottom, 148-149, 148 bottom, 154 top left, 159, 160 bottom right, 174 centre, 179 top, 184 top left, 188 top, 188-189, 189 top, 194 bottom, 203 bottom right, 207 top, 214 left, 215, 217 top, 217 centre right, 217 centre bot-tom, 220 bottom, 226 top, 229 right, 236 bottom right, 237, 242 bottom, 244 centre, 244 bottom, 250 top, 253 centre, 268-269, 280 top]. Vercelli White Star
Same Author 2006 Angkor: Splendors of the Khmer Civilization. [Especially: Figures on pp. 4-5, 38, 39, 48-49, 58-59, 68 left, 80, 81, 82, 88, 92-93, 98-99 bottom, 102-103, 106 bottom, 118, 119 right, 132 bottom, 138, 140-141, 145, 155, 175 bottom, 184 bottom left, 184 bottom right, 186, 187 bottom left, 187 bottom right, 188 bottom left, 188 bottom right, 193 top, 196-197, 202, 208 bottom, 210 bottom, 213 bottom, 236 bottom left, 244-245, 246-247, 247 bottom left, 252 top left, 252 top right, 252 bot-tom, 252-253, 257 bottom left, 258-259, 261 top, 274 bottom, 274-275, 276 top, 277 top, 277 bottom, 278-279, 279, 284 top, 284 bottom left, 288 center]. Vercelli White Star
Beer,
Robert
1999 The Encyclopedia of Tibetan Symbols and Motifs. [Especially: Plates 8, 40, 42, 43, 44, 45, 46, 47, 48, 49, 56, 58, 64, 65, 71, 94, 106, 114, 118, 119, 120, 124, 128, 130, 132, 133, 134, 136, 137, 139, 164].   Boston Shambhala
Behrendt,
Kurt A.
2007 The Art of Gandhara in the Metropolitan Museum of Art. [Especially: Figures 11, 17; Catalogue s 2, 4, 27, 38, 41, 42, 43, 44, 47].   New York The Metropolitan Museum of Art
Bharatha Iyer,
K.
1977 Animals in Indian Sculpture.   Bombay D.B. Taraporevala Sons & Company
Bhattacharyya,
Benoytosh
1924 The Indian Buddhist Iconography: Mainly Based on the Sadhanamala and Cognate Tantric Texts of Rituals. (1958: Second edition: Firma K.L. Mukhopadhyay, Calcutta; 2007: Reprint edition: Aryan Books International, New Delhi). [Especially: Plates VIIa, VIIc, VIId, VIIIb, VIIIc, VIIId, XXIIIb, XXXVIIc, XXXVIId, XXXVIIIa, XXXVIIIb, XXXVIIIc, XLIII.4].   Oxford Oxford University Press
Bloss,
Lowell W.
1973 The Buddha and the Naga: A Study in Buddhist Folk Re-ligiosity. [Especially: Figure 1].   History of Religions, Volume 13, Number 1, August 1973, pp. 36-53
Bunce,
Fredrick William
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1999 Tibetan Art: Tracing the Development of Spiritual Ideals and Art in Tibet 600-2000 AD. [Especially: Figures 13, 50, 53, 78, 102, 104, 111, 121, 122, 137; Plates 15, 24, 56, 57, 58, 60, 64, 67, 68, 73, 74, 78, 79, 80, 86, 87, 88, 91, 92, 99, 100, 107, 110, 113, 118, 122].   Milan Editoriale Jaca Book
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1999 Some Karma Kagyupa Paintings in the Rubin Collecti-ons. In Rhie, Marylin M. and Robert A.F. Thurman, Worlds of Transformation: Tibetan Art of Wisdom and Compassion, 1999, pp. 75-127. [Especially: Figures 1, 11, 15, 22, 23, 24; Pla-tes 2, 4, 8c].   New York Tibet House
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1948 The Image of Narayana. [Especially: Figures D, E, F, H, K].   Annals of the Bhandarkar Oriental Research Institute, Volume 29, Num-ber 1/4, 1948, pp. 213-226
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1965 Buddha Sheltered by Mucalinda. [Especially: Figures 1, 2, 3, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9].   The Bulletin of the Cleveland Muse-um of Art, Volume 52, Number 7, September 1965, pp. 185-193
Same Author 1966 Buddha Sheltered by Mucalinda (Cleveland Museum of Art). [Especially: Figures 64, 65].   The Burlington Magazine, Volume 108, Number 758, May 1966, pp. 258-263
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1891 Serpent-Worship in India.   Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society of Great Britain and Ireland, July 1891, pp. 361-392
Same Author 1901 The Nagas: A Contribution to the History of Serpent-Wor-ship. [Especially: Figures following pp. 462, 464].   Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society of Great Britain and Ireland, July 1901, pp. 461-473
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2004 Nagas in the Sculptural Decorations of Early West Orissian Temples. [Especially: Plates 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27].   Odisha Historical Research Journal (OHRJ), Volume XLVII, Number 1, 2004, pp. 16-37
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2014 Von Ganymed zur Nagakönigin: Gedanken zum Frag-ment einer Gandharaskulptur in deutschem Privatbesitz.   Zeitschrift Der Deutschen Morgen-ländischen Gesellschaft, Volume 164, Number 1, 2014, pp. 179-206
Pradhan,
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2001 The History of Naga Cult and Naga Festivals in Orissa.   Proceedings of the Indian History Con-gress, Volume 62, 2001, pp. 149-159
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1949 Vrtra [A Study in the Impact of the Aryans on Indian Culture].   Annals of the Bhandarkar Oriental Re-search Institute, Volume 30, Number 3/4, July-October 1949, pp. 163-214
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1973 The Art of Tantra. (1978: Revised edition: Thames & Hud-son, London; 1988: Reprint edition: Thames & Hudson, Lon-don). [Especially: Figures 38, 48, 49, 75, 76, 77, 78, 84, 86, 91, 93, 100, 102, 104, 113, 114, 115, 116, 125, 131, 133, 139, 141, 144, 167].   London Thames & Hudson
Rhi,
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2009 The Garuda and the Nagi/Naga in the Headdresses of Gandharan Bodhisattvas: Locating Textual Parallels. [Espe-cially: Figures 1, 2, 3].   Bulletin of the Asia Institute, Volume 23, 2009, pp. 147-158
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1991 Wisdom and Compassion: The Sacred Art of Tibet. [Es-pecially: Figures 2, 14; Catalogue s 1, 3, 3.2, 4, 4.1, 10, 13, 13.1, 18, 23, 24, 24.2, 33, 33.1, 41, 42, 43, 52, 53, 54, 55, 56, 58, 58.1, 58.2, 66, 90, 93, 97, 97.2, 99, 104, 104.1, 105, 105.1, 111, 112, 115, 122.2, 122.3, 128, 129, 129.1, 133, 133.1, 149, 151].   New York Harry N. Abrams
Same Authors 1999 Worlds of Transformation: Tibetan Art of Wisdom and Compassion. [Especially: Figures 5, 9; 1, 6, 14, 27; Catalogue s 1, 1.1, 3, 7, 8, 10, 26, 30, 38, 39, 40, 45, 47, 50, 57, 61, 64, 67, 69, 72, 74, 75, 76, 77, 79, 80, 82, 91, 92, 95, 97, 98, 106, 120, 122, 124, 125, 133, 134, 136, 138, 139, 141, 144, 146, 147, 149, 156, 161, 164, 166, 166.1, 168, 173, 173.1, 177, 178, 180, 183, 190, 193].   New York Tibet House
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1936 Amaravati Sculpture. [Especially: Figures 1b, 2, 3].   Bulletin of the Fogg Art Museum, Vo-lume 6, Number 1, November 1936, pp. 2-7
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1940 Jaina Yaksas and Yaksinis. [Especially: Figure 1].   Bulletin of the Deccan College Re-search Institute, Volume 1, Number 2/4, March 1940, pp. 157-168
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2016 Reading the Mahavamsa: The Literary Aims of a Thera-vada Buddhist History. [Especially: Chapter 3: Nagas, Transfigured Figures Inside the Text, Ruminative Triggers Outside, pp. 67-93].   New York Columbia University Press
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Seminal
Works

Comparative & General Studies

Greco-Roman World

Ancient & Medieval European Paganism

Anatolia, Levant
& Mesopotamia

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Islam

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« ● CHINA, KOREA & JAPAN ● »
Allan,
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1991 Shape of the Turtle: The Myth, Art, and Cosmos in Early China. Albany State University of
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1979 A Linguistic Study of the Flora and Fauna Sections of the Erh-ya. PhD Dissertation.   Tuscon University of Arizona
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1965 Gods and Drinking Serpents. (Translated from the Ger-man by Joyce Adams). [Especially: Figures 1, 2, 3, 4, 17, 18, 19, 21, 22, 23, 25, 29, 33, 34, 35, 38, 42, 43, 44, 45a, 45b, 46, 55a, 55b].   History of Religions, Volume 4, Num-ber 2, Winter 1965, pp. 179-208
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Same Authors 2008 Rethinking Recarving: Ideals, Practices, and Problems of the "Wu Family Shrines" and Han China. [Especially: Figures 9 on p. 40, 4, 5 on p. 81, 8 on p. 83, 13 on p. 86, 14 on p. 89, 4, 5, 6 on p. 114, 7, 8, 10 on p. 115, 11 on p. 116, 30 on p. 126, 11 on p. 140, 12 on p. 141, 21 on p. 148, 32A on p. 154].   New Haven Yale University Press
Liu,
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1992 Long yu Zhongguo wenhua. (The Dragon and Chinese Culture).   Beijing Renmin University
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2014 Securing the Harmony between the High and the Low: Power Animals and Symbols of Political Authority in Ancient Chinese Jades and Bronzes.   Asian Perspectives, Volume 53, Num-ber 2, Fall 2014, pp. 195-225
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Same Author 1982 The Han Dynasty. (1982, French; Translated by Janet Se-ligman). [Especially: Figures 11, 21, 23, 27, 38, 39, 57, 75, 85, 87, 101, 105, 120, 128, 139, 140, 146, 147, 150, 152].   New York Rizzoli
Scarpari,
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2000 Ancient China: Chinese Civilization from its Origins to the Tang Dynasty. [Especially: Figures on pp. 6, 7, 26, 35 top, 54-55 top, 69 bottom, 88 top, 89 bottom, 90, 98-99 top, 100 top, 104, 105, 122 bottom left, 124 bottom left, 124-125 top, 124-125 bottom, 127 bottom, 131 top, 135 left, 135 right, 136-137, 137 top left, 140 bottom, 146 top, 149 top, 162 top, 166, 177 top right, 177 bottom centre, 181 centre, 181 bottom, 182 top, 183 right, 184 top, 186 bottom, 190 bottom, 191 top, 191 bottom, 192 top left, 194-195, 195 bottom, 199 top right, 199 bottom, 200 centre, 200 bottom, 201 top, 206, 212 bottom, 212-213, 214-215, 220-221, 221 bottom, 238 top, 238-239].   Vercelli VMB Publishers
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1980 The Divine Woman: Dragon Ladies and Rain Maidens in T'ang Literature.   San Fran-
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Watson,
William
1995 The Arts of China to AD 900. [Especially: Figures 36, 37, 41, 42, 45, 48, 49, 52, 60, 62, 66, 68, 74, 81, 85, 89, 90, 92, 94, 95, 101, 107, 108, 110, 112, 115, 122, 123, 134, 144, 147, 153, 161, 164, 165, 167, 251, 253, 257, 259, 297, 315, 379, 387].   New Haven Yale University Press
Weber,
Charles D.
1966 Chinese Pictorial Bronze Vessels of the Late Chou Pe-riod: Part I. [Especially: Figures 1, 3, 9b, 9e, 10a, 10b, 10d, 10e, 10f, 10g, 11a, 11b, 11c, 11f, 11g, 11j, 11l, 11m, 11n, 11o, 12a, 13a, 13b, 13f, 15a, 15b, 15e, 15f, 16g, 16h, 16i, 16j, 16k, 16l, 16m, 16n, 16o, 16p, 16q, 16s, 16t, 16u, 16v, 16dd, 16ee, 16ff, 18a-k, 19a-g].   Artibus Asiae, Volume 28, Number 2/3, 1966, pp. 107-154
Same Author 1966 Chinese Pictorial Bronze Vessels of the Late Chou Pe-riod: Part II. [Especially: Figures 23a, 24b, 24h, 26f, 27a, 28k].   Artibus Asiae, Volume 28, Number 4, 1966, pp. 271-311
Same Author 1967 Chinese Pictorial Bronze Vessels of the Late Chou Pe-riod: Part III. [Especially: Figures 32, 33, 36c, 37a, 37b, 37c, 42a, 42c, 43b, 43c, 44c, 44d, 45a, 45b, 45c, 45d, 46c, 46e, 46i, 46j, 46k, 46l, 47d, 48f, 49a, 49b, 49c, 49d, 49e, 49f, 49i, 49j, 49k, 50h, 50k, 50q, 50v].   Artibus Asiae, Volume 29, Number 2/3, 1967, pp. 115-192
Same Author 1968 Chinese Pictorial Bronze Vessels of the Late Chou Pe-riod: Part IV. [Especially: Figures 64c, 64f, 65a, 65d, 71b, 71d, 71e, 71f, 71g, 71h, 71k, 71n, 71q, 71r, 74a, 74i, 74j, 74k, 74m, 79a, 79b, 79c, 79d, 79e, 79f, 79g, 79h, 79i, 79j, 79v, 79x, 79y].   Artibus Asiae, Volume 30, Number 2/3, 1968, pp. 145-236
Yang,
Xu Fei, Yang Yun Jing, and Li Guo Xin
2014 Zhongguo Hanhua zaoxing yishu tudian. (Chinese Han Dynasty Art Encyclopedia). Volume I: People; Volume II: Dragons; Volume III: Animals; Volume IV: Ornaments; Vo-lume V: Auspices; Volume VI: Gods; Volume VII: Equipment; Volume VIII: Buildings.   Zhengzhou Elephant Press
Zhang,
Yu Huan and Ken Rose
1995 Who Can Ride the Dragon? An Exploration of the Cultu-ral Roots of Traditional Chinese Medicine.   Taos Paradigm Publications



Seminal
Works

Comparative & General Studies

Greco-Roman World

Ancient & Medieval European Paganism

Anatolia, Levant
& Mesopotamia

Egypt

Biblical
Tradition

Arabia & Early
Islam

Iran, Caucasus & Central Asia

Great Steppe &
Eurasian Nomads

India, Tibet, Sri Lan-ka & Southeast Asia

China, Korea
& Japan


Note(s): (1) The list of references includes monographs, collections of essays, PhD dissertations, and articles in academic journals. (2) Many of the listed publications have extensive bibliographic entries, which can be used for further inquiry. (3) The full lists of the printed publications that provided the source-images and are focused on a particular artistic medium or object function are provided in the bibliographic sections of the respective volumes. (4) A minimalist approach is adopted for the descriptions of the bibliographic entries: in cases of multiple publishers or publishing locations, only the first entry from the full bibliographic description is listed. (5) In cases of modern reprints of important older works, the original publication is listed, with the information on the later edition(s), such as the date of reprint, publisher, and publishing location, placed inside parentheses. In cases of translated works, both the original and English versions are listed. (6) An idiosyncratic universal formatting of the English-language entries is employed: all nouns, pronouns, numerals, adjectives, verbs, adverbs, and some categories of determiners are capitalized.

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